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Elisabeta Zelinka

Abstract

A characteristic of the medieval fabliaux is the dogma of antifeminist traditions. The present article will investigate whether The Canterbury Tales, as a type of fabliaux, are antifeminist literature or if, on the contrary, they stand as a reply to this genre and indirectly militate for feminist literature. Are The Canterbury Tales antifeminist writings or something one might call ‘anti-antifeminist’ literature?

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Adrian Stoia

Abstract

This work sets out to list and describe the liturgical vestments present in panel and mural paintings of churches located in southern Transylvania. The surviving body of such vestments on display in the ”Brukenthal” National Museum of Sibiu and that of the Black Church of Brașov not only confirms their use in religious services, but also the fact that they served as models for Transylvanian ecclesiastical painting. Of Western derivation, this type of vestment reflects a way of thinking and stands testament to social status or to the different hierarchies within the church. It is, at the same time, an indication of the development of this kind of craft, produced by specialized workshops.

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Józef Dobosz

Abstract

The paper addresses the issue of the origins of the town of Poznań founded in mid-13th century under German law. The birth of the charter town on the left bank of the Warta river is illustrated first and foremost by sources: documents from the mid-13th century, particularly a location charter of 1253, and narrative sources, e.g. The Wielkopolska Chronicle and yearly records written in Wielkopolska. The town was the work of Przemysł I, the duke of Wielkopolska, who sorted out property issues on the left bank of the Warta, made grants and granted privileges, erected his new castle next to the new town, and together with his brother Bolesław issued a location charter in 1253. The duke’s action resulted in the rise of one of the most important urban centers in medieval Poland.

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Jacek Olesiejko

ABSTRACT

The present article studies Cynewulf’s creative manipulation of heroic style in his hagiographic poem Juliana written around the 9th century A.D. The four poems now attributed to Cynewulf, on the strength of his runic autographs appended to each, Christ II, Elene, The Fates of the Apostles, and Juliana are written in the Anglo-Saxon tradition of heroic alliterative verse that Anglo- Saxons had inherited from their continental Germanic ancestors. In Juliana, the theme of treasure and exile reinforces the allegorical structure of Cynewulf’s poetic creation. In such poems like Beowulf and Seafarer treasure signifies the stability of bonds between people and tribes. The exchange of treasure and ritualistic treasure-giving confirms bonds between kings and their subjects. In Juliana, however, treasure is identified with heathen culture and idolatry. The traditional imagery of treasure, so central to Old English poetic lore, is inverted in the poem, as wealth and gold embody vice and corruption. The rejection of treasure and renunciation of kinship bonds indicate piety and chastity. Also, while in other Old English secular poems exile is cast in terms of deprivation of human company and material values, in Juliana the possession of and preoccupation with treasure indicates spiritual exile and damnation. This article argues that the inverted representations of treasure and exile in the poem lend additional strength to its allegorical elements and sharpen the contrast between secular world and Juliana, who is an allegorical representation of the Church.

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Svetlana V. Ivanova and Gennadiy N. Toschev

.M., Włodarczak P., Żurkiewicz D. 2015a Eneolithic, Yamnaya and Noua culture cemeteries from the first half of the 3rd and the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, Porohy, site 3a, Yampil Region, Vinnitsa Oblast: archaeometric and chronometric description, ritual and taxonomic-topogentic identification. In: A. Kośko (Ed.) Podolia as a Cultural Contact Area in the 4th/3rd-2nd Millennium BC. Baltic- Pontic Studies 20: 78-141. 2015b Eneolithic, Babyno and Noua culture cemeteries, Klembivka, site 1, Yampil Region, Vinnitsa Oblast: archaeometry, taxonomy and topogenetics. In: A. Kośko

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Svetlana V. Ivanova and Gennadiy N. Toschev

-15. Goslar T., Klochko V.I., Kośko A., Włodarczak P., Żurkiewicz D. 2015 Chronometry of Late Eneolithic and ‘Early Bronze’ cultures in the Middle Dniester area: investigations of the Yampil Barrow Complex. In: A. Kośko (Ed.) Podolia as a Cultural Contact Area in the 4th/3rd-2nd Millennium BC. Baltic-Pontic Studies 20: 256-291. Harat K., Potupczyk M., Razumow S. 2014 Charakterystyka źrodeł archeologicznych pozyskanych w latach 1984- -1993. In: A. Kośko, M. Potupczyk, S. Razumow (Eds) Naddniestrzańskie kompleksy cmentarzysk kurhanowych społeczności z III i z

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Dorothy Kim

Abstract

This article evaluates Jewish-Christian difference in the constantly shifting terrain of thirteenth-century medieval England. It reframes this difference in relation to theories of embodiment, feminist materialism, and entanglement theory. To conceptualize how Jews can be marked by race vis-à-vis the body, the article uses the example of Christian Hebraists discussing the Hebrew alphabet and its place in thirteenth-century English bilingual manuscripts.

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Tiberiu Brăilean and Aurelian-Petruş Plopeanu

Abstract

Today there is a fruitful dispute between secularists and those who argue the compatibility between Christianity, with its religious precepts and intrinsic system of ethical values, and the liberal democracy. The second group is however hopelessly wrong, as much as the first. This endeavor is epistemologically wrong and the argument is pretty simple. The institutions of divine right, such as the Church or family, shall be subject to the single principle or hierarchy of being, that goes beyond the narrow human consciousness and action. From this perspective, these institutions may be called undemocratic or they do not respect the ideology of inalienable human rights, as formulated at the present time.

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Włodzimierz Wójcicki

Abstract

Summary Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the participation of religious ideas in shaping ethical attitudes in business. Its purpose is to indicate the need to consolidate ethical principles in economics with the use of various possibilities of social persuasion. Materials and methods: The research was based on literature studies, including religious, philosophical and historical literature. In particular, the method of induction was employed - from rules to conclusions. Attention was paid to the considerations of the method itself. Results: The development of research on the method required the recognition of the role of reason - autonomous with respect to faith. Findings of St. Thomas Aquinas (distinction between act and possibility, forms and matter, recognition of the causal linkage between events, negation of the dual truth about the same event) and W. Ockham (entities are not to be multiplied without necessity) are still valid today. Conclusions: Religious ideas support economic activity by propagating ethical norms of behaviour. This, in turn, evokes the view of J.M. Keynes about the important role of ideas as such. The significance of the Bible goes far beyond religious aspects.