References 1. https://www.statista.com/chart/3354/large-ship-losses -reach-lowest-point-in-a-decade/ 2. J. Caldwell, “Ultimate longitudinal strength,” Trans Royal Inst Nav Arch, Vol. 107, pp. 411-430, 1965. 3. C. Smith, “Influence of Local Compressive Failure on Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of a Ship’s Hull,” Proc. Int. Symp. On Practical Design in Shipbuilding (PRADS), pp. 73-79, 1977. 4. Z. Pei, and M. Fujikubo, “Application of idealized structural unit method to progressive collapse analysis
Zhiyong Pei, Tao Xu and Weiguo Wu
. Dimensions of integration in interdisciplinary explanations of the origin of evolutionary novelty. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44(4): 537–50. Love, Alan C.; and Nathan, Marco J. 2015. The idealization of causation in mechanistic explanation. Philosophy of Science 82(5): 761–74. Madzvamuse, Anotida; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; and Maini, Philip K. 2010. Stability analysis of non-autonomous reaction-diffusion systems: the effects of growing domains. Journal of
Stefan Berczyński, Daniel Grochała and Zenon Grządziel
The article deals with computer-based modeling of burnishing a surface previously milled with a spherical cutter. This method of milling leaves traces, mainly asperities caused by the cutting crossfeed and cutter diameter. The burnishing process - surface plastic treatment - is accompanied by phenomena that take place right in the burnishing ball-milled surface contact zone. The authors present the method for preparing a finite element model and the methodology of tests for the assessment of height parameters of a surface geometrical structure (SGS). In the physical model the workpieces had a cuboidal shape and these dimensions: (width × height × length) 2×1×4.5 mm. As in the process of burnishing a cuboidal workpiece is affected by plastic deformations, the nonlinearities of the milled item were taken into account. The physical model of the process assumed that the burnishing ball would be rolled perpendicularly to milling cutter linear traces. The model tests included the application of three different burnishing forces: 250 N, 500 N and 1000 N. The process modeling featured the contact and pressing of a ball into the workpiece surface till the desired force was attained, then the burnishing ball was rolled along the surface section of 2 mm, and the burnishing force was gradually reduced till the ball left the contact zone. While rolling, the burnishing ball turned by a 23° angle. The cumulative diagrams depict plastic deformations of the modeled surfaces after milling and burnishing with defined force values. The roughness of idealized milled surface was calculated for the physical model under consideration, i.e. in an elementary section between profile peaks spaced at intervals of crossfeed passes, where the milling feed fwm = 0.5 mm. Also, asperities after burnishing were calculated for the same section. The differences of the obtained values fall below 20% of mean values recorded during empirical experiments. The adopted simplification in after-milling SGS modeling enables substantial acceleration of the computing process. There is a visible reduction of the Ra parameter value for milled and burnished surfaces as the burnishing force rises. The tests determined an optimal burnishing force at a level of 500 N (lowest Ra = 0.24 μm). Further increase in the value of burnishing force turned out not to affect the surface roughness, which is consistent with the results obtained from experimental studies.
Women's Power To Be Loud: The Authority of the Discourse and Authority of the Text in Mary Dorcey's Irish Lesbian Poetic Manifesto "Come Quietly or the Neighbours Will Hear"
The following article aims to examine Mary Dorcey's poem "Come Quietly or the Neighbours Will Hear," included in the 1991 volume Moving into the Space Cleared by Our Mothers. Apart from being a well-known and critically acclaimed Irish poet and fiction writer, the author of the poem has been, from its beginnings, actively involved in lesbian rights movement. Dorcey's poem "Come Quietly or the Neighbours Will Hear" is to be construed from a perspective of lesbian and feminist discourse, as well as a cultural, sociological and political context in which it was created. While analyzing the poem, the emphasis is being paid to the intertwining of various ideological and subversive assumptions (dominant and the implied ones), their competing for importance and asserting authority over one another, in line with, and sometimes, against the grain of the textual framework. In other words, Dorcey's poem introduces a multilayered framework that draws heavily on various sources: the popular culture idiom, religious discourse (the references to the Virgin Mary and the biblical annunciation imagery), the text even employs, in some parts, crime and legal jargon, but, above all, it relies upon sensuous lesbian experience where desire and respect for the other woman opens the emancipating space allowing for redefining of one's personal and textual location. As a result of such a multifarious interaction, unrepresented and unacknowledged Irish women's standpoints may come to the surface and become articulated, disrupting their enforced muteness that the controlling heteronormative discourse has attempted to ensure. In Dorcey's poem, the operating metaphor of women's silence (or rather—silencing women), conceived of, at first, as the need to conceal one's sexual (lesbian) identity in fear of social ostracism and contempt of the "neighbours," is further equated with the noiseless, solitary and violent death of the anonymous woman, the finding of whose body was reported on the news. In both cases, the unwanted Irish women's voices of either agony, during the unregistered by anybody misogynist bloodshed that took place inside the flat, or the forbidden sounds of lesbian sexual excitement, need to be (self) censored and stifled, not to disrupt an idealized image of the well-established family and heteronormative patterns. In the light of the aforementioned parallel, empowered by the shared bodily and emotional closeness with her female lover, and already bitterly aware that silence in discourse is synonymous with textual, or even, actual death, the speaker in "Come Quietly or the Neighbours Will Hear" comes to claim her own agency and makes her voice heard by others and taken into account.
Olympism in the Context of Modernity
The sociological outlook on Olympism and sport contained in this paper covered the ideas and notions of sport to a lesser extent than the actual state of affairs, that is, the condition of sport here and now. The sociological description of sport assumed that sport was an element of the modern society and contemporary culture. This perspective allowed the description and analysis of sport in terms which are employed by sociology, or more generally, by social sciences. This means that it was possible to reflect upon sport through paradigms, theories and trends of thought which are effectively used in attempts at sociological descriptions of modern societies.
The critical analysis of Olympism and contemporary sport, presented above, does not assert that Olympism and sport have run out of possibilities for further development. On the contrary, both Olympism and contemporary sport are the hope and the chance that a better future awaits communities, cultures, civilizations and humanity on a global scale. Furthermore, the threats and negative trends which emerge in sport should not remain concealed or underestimated, because they are of an objective character and have an effect on the whole of the humanistic power of sport. One should also realise that all the aforementioned negative phenomena and processes do not result from some kind of degeneration of sport as such, but are caused by general, external tendencies which penetrate sport through economic, financial, axiological, ethical and many other channels.
The more or less clear outline of the future of sport contained in this paper is of an alternative and exclusively probabilistic character. The future development of sport can take three different directions. Firstly, the future may bring out and strengthen all the tendencies which are already present in contemporary sport, such as dehumanisation, commercialisation, visualisation and medialisation. Secondly, there may emerge a global trend to force sport into the idealised frame of the past and make it become what it was after its foundations had been laid during the Hellenistic period, or rather, the way people remember it being. However, such inclinations towards general reconstruction usually emerge after radical developments which, for example, challenge sport as a cultural reality. Thirdly, the postmodernist ideals may be revived in one form or another, and while they will not necessarily alter the structure of sport, they will put the emphasis which results from certain trends and processes on some unspecified areas of sport consumption and the pursuit of maximal sensations and excitement in sport.
No ideals are immune to distortion when subjected to the process of materialisation. Ideals are not realised by perfect and metaphysical beings, but by humans made of flesh and bones and having both good and bad inclinations. Every person is socialised and moulded in a specific cultural and social reality which is never free from deviation and pathology. Similarly, there can be no sport, and that includes the Olympic movement, which could possibly remain an enclave of good and nobleness, a paradise on Earth, with a wall separating it from all the phenomena and processes that take place in contemporary societies. In a way, sport and the Olympic movement are bound to be penetrated by diverse phenomena and trends which have an impact on the spirit and image of sport.
There are no ideal societies nor is there ideal sport, free from deviation and pathology. It is thus totally impossible to accomplish the utopia of the Olympic movement and sport as a land of happy people, uninfluenced by phenomena and processes which are characteristic of modern societies. There can be no world without individuals who breach cultural models, norms and values, no world without deviants and swindlers. Nevertheless, this unattainable utopia has to be pursued, because in the pursuit, people can achieve a lot to improve the axionormative order in sport as well as social life in all its aspects.
Krzysztof Kalinski, Marek Galewski and Michał Mazur
-105.  Kalinski K.: Nadzorowanie drgan układów mechanicznych modelowanych dyskretnie (Vibration surveillance of mechanical systems which are idealised discretely). Gdansk, Wydawnictwo PG, 2001. ISBN 83-88007-83-1.  Tou J.T.: Nowoczesna teoria sterowania (Modern control theory). Warszawa, WNT, 1967.  Engel Z., Kowal J.: Sterowanie procesami wibroakustycznymi (Control of vibroacoustic processes). Kraków, Wydawnictwa AGH, 1995. ISSN 0239-6114.  Marchelek K.: Dynamika obrabiarek (Dynamics of machine tools). Warszawa
E. Gadalińska, A. Baczmański, Y. Zhao, L. Le Joncour, S. Wroński, B. Panicaud, M. Francois, C. Braham and T. Buslaps
-192.  Bunge, H.J. (1982). Texture analysis in material science: Mathematical methods . London: Butterworth.  Daniels, J.E. & Drakopoulos, M. (2009). High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Using the Pixium 4700 Flat Panel Detector. Synchrotron Rad . 6, 463-468.  Hammersley, A.P., Svensson, S.O., Hanfland, M., Fitch, S.O. and Häusermann, D., 1996. Two-dimensional detector software: From real detector to idealised image or two-theta scan. High Pressure Research , 14, 235-248.  Merkel, S. (2011). Multifit/Polydefix Polycrystal Deformation using X
Ahmad Al-Omari and Takashi Noiri
. Hungar., 105 (2004), 27-37. 5. Dontchev, J. - On pre-I-open sets and a decomposition of I-continuity, Banyan Math. J., 2 (1996). 6. Hatir, E.; Noiri, T. - On decompositions of continuity via idealization, Acta Math. Hungar., 96 (2002), 341-349. 7. Hatir, E.; Noiri, T. - On semi-I-open sets and semi-I-continuous functions, Acta Math. Hungar., 107 (2005), 345-353. 8. Kuratowski, C. - Topologie. I. Espaces Métrisables, Espaces Complets (French), 2d ed. Monografie Matematyczne, vol. 20, Warszawa-Wroc law, 1948
References 1. Adams R.D., Peppiatt N.A.: Effect of Poisson’s ratio strains in adherends on stresses of an idealized lap joint. Journal of Strain Analysis Vol. 8. No 2 (1974), pp. 134 - 139. 2. Adams R.D., Wake W.C.: Structural Adhesive Joints in Engineering. Elsevier Appl. Sci. Publ. Ltd. 1986 3. Ficarra Ch.H.: Analysis of adhesive bonded fiber-reinforced composite joints. Dissertation, North Carolina State University 2001. Adhesion & Adhesives 29 (2009) 331-341. 4. Fung Y.C.: Foundations of
N. Gowrisankar, A. Keskin and N. Rajesh
ideals and I-irresolute functions, Papers on general topology and applications (Slippery Rock, PA, 1993), 28-37, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 767, New York Acad. Sci., New York, 1995. 5. Gowrisankar, N.; Keskin, A.; Rajesh, N. - Some new separation axioms in ideal topological spaces, submitted. 6. Hatir, E.; Noiri, T. - On decomposition of continuity via idealization, Acta Math. Hungar., 96 (2002), 341-349. 10.1023/A:1019760901169 7. Kuratowski, K. - Topology, Vol. I, Academic Press, New York-London; Pan