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Chi Kit Au, Tin Lok Lai and Cheuk Wan Yim

1 Introduction Human microbiota, a complex population of microorganisms, consists of both commensals and pathogenic microbial cells [ 1 ]. They reside in the body of every person and interact with us in many different ways [ 1 ]. Nowadays, millions of sequences can be generated from a single tissue sample by a sequencing technology, which allow us to understand more about the microorganisms’ world [ 1 ]. The microbiome can be defined as a collective genome of the microbes, which include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses [ 2 ]. Gut harbors approximately

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Dalibor Novotny, Lucie Roubalova, Kvetoslava Aiglova, Jana Bednarikova and Margita Bartkova

, Guo F, Wang JH, Liu F, et al. IL28B genetic variants and gender are associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. J Vir Hepat. 2012; 19:173-81. 18. Hayes CN, Imamura M, Aikata H, Chayama K. Genetics of IL28B and HCV-response to infection and treatment. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 9: 406-417. 19. Rauch A, Kutalik Z, Descombes P, Cai T, Di Iulio J, Mueller T, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B is associated with chronic hepatitis C and treatment failure: a genome-wide association study. Gastroenterology

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Katia S. Kovacheva, Zornica B. Kamburova, Savelina L. Popovska, Ivan N. Ivanov, Maria N. Simeonova and Petia N. Angelova

and cancers involving BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. J Natl Cancer Insl 1998;90( 15): 1138-45. 11. Narod SA, Foulkes WD. BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and beyond. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4<9): 665-76. 12. Agnarsson BA, Jonasson JG, Bjomsdottir IB, Barkardottir RB, Egilsson V, Sigurdsson H. Inherited BRCA2 mutation associated with high grade breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1998;4 7(2): 121 -7. 13. National Human Genome research Institute [Internet]. Breast cancer information core Breast cancer, [cited 2013 Nov 2]. Available

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Mehran Shokri, Rahmatollah Najafi, Jalal Niromand, Arefeh Babazadeh, Mostafa Javanian, Masomeh Bayani, Zahra Geraili Afra and Soheil Ebrahimpour

tuberculosis burden countries. Eur Respir J. 2015:ERJ-01245-2015. 4. Cohen KA, Abeel T, McGuire AM, Desjardins CA, Munsamy V, Shea TP, et al. Evolution of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis over four decades: whole genome sequencing and dating analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from KwaZulu-Natal. PLoS Med. 2015;12(9):e1001880. 5. Forrellad MA, Klepp LI, Gioffré A, Sabio y García J, Morbidoni HR, Santangelo MdlP, et al. Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Virulence. 2013;4(1):3-66. 6. Gambhir S, Ravina M, Rangan K

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Piotr Chomik, Paulina Gil-Kulik, Malgorzata Filas, Agnieszka Wojcieszek, Mateusz Wilinski, Jolanta Karwat, Lidia Kotula, Alicja Niedojadlo, Marcin Czop, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Maria Cioch, Ryszard Pluta and Janusz Kocki

Childhood De novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clin CANCER Res. 2007; 13: 5109-5114. 28. Verhagen A.M., Coulson E.J., Vaux D.L.: Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and their relatives: IAPs and other BIRPs. Genome Biology 2001; 2: 3009.1-3009.10. 29. Wright C.W., Duckett C.S.: Reawakening the cellular death program in neoplasia through the therapeutic blockade of IAP. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 2673-2678. 30. Yamamoto K. et al.: Expression of IAP proteins in myelodysplastic syndromes trans forming to overt leukemia. Leukemia Research

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Adrian Jarzynski, Anastazja Boguszewska, Ewa Kliszczewska, Lukasz Rolniak, Anna Dworzanska and Malgorzata Polz-Dacewicz

.L., Goloni-Bertollo E.M.: Methylation as biomarker for head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol., 50, 6, 2014. 4. 4. Bhatia V., Goel M.M., Makker A., Tewari S., Yadu A., Shilpi P., Kumar S., Agarwal S.P., Goel S.K.: Promoter Region Hypermethylation and mRNA Expression of MGMT and p16 Genes in Tissue and Blood Samples of Human Premalignant Oral Lesions and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Bio. Med. Research International, 2014. 5. Birdwell C.E., Queen K.J., Kilgore P.C.: Genome-wide DNA methylation as an epigenetic consequence of Epstein-Barr virus

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Nyúl-Tóth Ádám, Mészáros Ádám, Győri Fanni, Wilhelm Imola and István A. Krizbai

matter astrocytes in health and disease. Neuroscience, 2014. 276: p. 161-73. 16. Wilhelm, I. and I.A. Krizbai, In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier for the study of drug delivery to the brain. Mol Pharm, 2014. 11(7): p. 1949-63. 17. 17. Eisen, M.B., et al., Cluster analysis and display of genome-wide expression patterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1998. 95(25): p. 14863-8. 18. Uchida, Y., et al., Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics of human blood-brain barrier transporters and receptors. J Neurochem, 2011. 117(2): p. 333-45. 19

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Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Reza Ranjbar, Javad Zaeimi, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Sobhan Ghafouryan, Mohammad Raftari, Ahmed Sahib Abdulamir, Ali Delpisheh, Reza Mohebi and Fatimah Abu Bakar

, McClelland M. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nuc Acids Res. 1990; 18:7213-18. 15. Seifert H, Schulze A, Baginski R, Pulverer G. Comparison of four different methods for epidemiologic typing of Acinetobacter baumannii. J Clin Microbiol. 1994; 32:1816-19. 16. Koeleman JGM, Stoof J, Vandenbroucke-Gruls CM, Savelkoul PHM. Identification of epidemic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii by integrase gene PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39:8-13. 17. Prashanth K, Badrinath S. Epidemiological investigation of

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Panan Kanchanaphum and Jerapan Krungkrai

, Traut TW. Intrinsic activity and stability of bifunctional human UMP synthase and its two separate catalytic domains, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase. J Biol Chem. 1996; 271:10704-8. 15. Gardner MJ, Hall N, Fung E, White O, Berriman M, Hyman RW, et al. Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Nature. 2002; 419:498-511. 16. Krungkrai J, Prapunwattana P, Wichitkul C, Reungprapavut S, Krungkrai SR, Horii T. Molecular biology and biochemistry of malarial parasite

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Sunutcha Suntrarachun, Lawan Chanhome and Montri Sumontha

-Ping L. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah (Serpents: Elapidae). Yi Chuan. 2010; 32:719-25. 14. Wuster W, Peppin L, Pook CE, Walker DE. A nesting of vipers: phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Viperidae (Squamata: Serpentes). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008; 49:445-59. 15. Lertwatcharasarakul P, Thongtip N, Boonnontae S, Wajjwalku W, Mahasawankul S, Angkawanish T, et al. Haplotypes of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Thailand based on cytochrome b gene. Kamphaengsaen