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In the years 2017-2018 the Marketing Faculty of Łódź University conducted a research project “Marketing strategies of companies based in Łódź Voivodeship on foreign markets”. The aim of this text is to present the initial research findings strategies implemented by surveyed companies on foreign markets. The examined companies seldom attempted to conduct the foreign market research and the marketing strategy that they used was strictly related to the prevailing form of expansion into foreign markets, i.e. export. Both the product and the pricing policy were adapted to the specific character of the foreign market. Activities in the area of distribution were limited to indirect export and they were not initiated by the examined companies. The prevailing majority of companies used the Internet, trade fairs and exhibitions in their promotional activities. The intermediaries in the distribution channel were responsible for subsequent promotional activities. They involve marketing strategies typical for small and medium companies and their content depends on the intermediaries in the distribution channel on foreign markets.
The forthcoming transfer of St. Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg being a UNESCO World Heritage Site to the Russian Orthodox Church ignites a heated debate within the Russian society. The cathedral being part of the State Museum Complex stands out as a pearl of the world’s iconic architecture. Furthermore, it is the second most visited museum after the Hermitage, boasts an outstanding exhibition potential, and it regularly hosts church services and ritual events. Museum collections exceed twenty-four thousand items of storage, and they continue to be replenished with found rarities and newly restored objects with the status of a relic to be protected. The aim of the article is to measure the value of the assets of the monument building, assessing the insured value of the object. Uncertainty of the future use of the disputed object, however, allows us to consider the calculation capabilities and methodical tools of valuation activities to measure the market and insurance value of such a real estate object and land plot, for example, in order to practice damage compensation and transfer the object from the balance sheet of one owner to balance of another owner. The latter circumstance determines the main discourse of this study. The present article is devoted to questions of an expert estimation of the insured value of the object of research in the form of St. Isaac’s Cathedral. The article is a continuation of a series of previously published works by the author.
Ivana Rašić Bakarić
This paper investigates the link between cluster membership and performance of clustered companies. The object of the study is the Croatian Wood Cluster (CWC). The paper presents the results of a survey of 34 members of the Croatian Wood Cluster operating in wood and furniture industries. The survey was conducted in order to identify and analyse perceptions and attitudes of CWC members towards CWC objectives, activities and performance; the cooperation strength among cluster members and that with the players outside the cluster; the effects of clustering on the operational performance of the clustered SMEs; business and economic setting in Croatia, barriers for the work of the CWC and the relevancy of government policy measures. The empirical results indicate that the economic performance of the clustered companies is significantly predicted by the cooperation with public institutions, financial institutions and professional associations (such as the Agency for Investments and Competitiveness) provided by the CWC and by the access to cluster resources such as horizontal cooperation, fairs, exhibitions etc. Additionally, an access to credit, customers and competitors shows a significant positive effect on finance-based performance of the clustered companies. On the other hand, cooperation among cluster members and cooperation with scientific, high education and research institutions show no significant relationship with the company performance.
Theater an der Wien 1893, Hofoper 1896
In June of 1892, Smetana’s Prodaná nevěsta (The Bartered Bride) was heard in Vienna for the first time as part of a guest appearance by the Czech National Theatre at the International Musical and Theatrical Exhibition. The clear success of the opera and of the performances of the National Theatre ensemble was reflected in the reviews of the Viennese critics, who were calling for German-language performances of Prodaná nevěsta on the stage of the Court Opera. On the basis of information from the archives of the Court Opera (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv), one can document the reasons why, as it turned out, the first Viennese (and German-language) stage to produce the opera was the Theater an der Wien in April 1893, and why the premiere at the Court Opera did not occur until three years later. The study also devotes attention to the first performers for both productions of Prodaná nevěsta and to the circumstances of the two Viennese premieres, which opened up the pathway to other stages around the world after a thirty-year delay.
Mieke Bal and Rachel E. Burke
After Rachel E. Burke briefly introduces the essays presented with a focus on our contemporary relationship to modern subjectivity, Mieke Bal will make the case for the sense of presentness on an affective and sensuous level in Munch’s paintings and Flaubert’s writing by selecting a few topics and cases from the book Emma and Edvard Looking Sideways: Loneliness and the Cinematic, published by the Munch Museum in conjunction with the exhibition Emma & Edvard. It is this foregrounded presentness that not only produces the ongoing thematic relevance of these works, but more importantly, the sense-based conceptualism that declares art and life tightly bound together. If neither artist eliminated figuration in favour of abstraction, they had a good reason for that. Art is not a representation of life, but belongs to it, illuminates it and helps us cope with it by sharpening our senses. As an example, a few paintings will clarify what I mean by the noun-qualifier “cinematic” and how that aesthetic explains the production of loneliness.
Although the intermediality of Jean-Luc Godard’s films of the 1980s has been extensively analysed, especially the tableaux vivants in Passion (1982), little has been said on the intermedial dimension of gesture in the director’s work of this period. The article investigates how the gestural flows in Godard’s First Name: Carmen (Prénom Carmen, 1983) interrelate heterogeneous forms, meanings, arts, and media. The interconnection between the gestures of the musicians who are rehearsing Beethoven’s late string quartets and the lovers’ gestures, inspired by Rodin’s sculptures, gives cohesion to the hybrid aesthetics of the film. Gesture is the element which incorporates, develops, and sets in motion the features of the other arts, not only by creating an in-between space that forges links between media, but especially by exhibiting the process of making itself. Indeed, the relationship between the performing, musical, and visual arts is made visible in the exhibition of the corporeal effort of making (whether it be making music, film, or love) that tends to open the boundaries separating the different arts. The aural and visual qualities of gestures communicate between themselves, generating rhythms and forms that circulate in the continuous flow of moving images. By fostering the analogy between the gesture of carving, of performing music, and of making film, Godard highlights what unites the arts in cinema, while feeding on their differences.
Significant changes started in the children’s books market from 1989. The market gradually began to be saturated with far less expensive reprints of Western productions. Their artistic form is based on the style of cartoons, thus replacing the diversity of illustrations which is necessary to activate the development of child’s perception. Consequently, a special role is played by measures aimed to popularize the artistic achievements of artist-illustrators and designers of books for children in Poland. After the political system transformation, earlier activities were continued (plein-air workshops for illustrators in the Roztocze region). New undertakings were also initiated (meetings with graphic layout artists, conferences, exhibitions, workshops for children and teenagers in libraries). The article discusses the activities of Gallery [Galeria] 31 at Branch no. 30 of Hieronim Lopaciński City Public Library in Lublin, Poznań Trade Fair Meetings in Poznań, and plein-air workshops for artist-illustrators. These events are an example of local and nation-wide activities. They develop a conscious attitude towards the impact of the book form as a visual communication. The forms of Polish books (including textbooks and reading list books) for the youngest readers cannot be regarded as satisfactory.
The Czech National Bank issued six commemorative coins in 2016. They are represented by three silver 200-crown pieces celebrating the following anniversaries: the 125th anniversary of the General Land Centennial Exhibition, the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Hradec Králové and the 450th birth anniversary of Jan Jessenius. Another issue is represented by one silver 500-crown piece celebrating the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Czechoslovak National Council. The first two gold commemorative 5000-crown pieces from the new cycle called ‘Castles’ were produced: the ‘Kost’ Castle and the ‘Bezděz’ Castle. The Castles gold coin cycle is the fourth five-year cycle of gold coins the CNB has issued since 2001. The first, “Ten Centuries of Architecture”, comprising ten 2000-crown coins, was issued between 2001 and 2005. It was followed by the “Industrial Heritage Sites” cycle in 2006–2010 (ten 2500-crown coins). In 2011–2015 ten 5000-crown coins were issued in the Bridges cycle.