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Shamsur R. Choudhury, Amelia Furbish and Tahseen A. Chowdhury

Introduction Bangladeshis form a significant minority ethnic population in the United Kingdom and have a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) [ 1 ] . While genetic factors may be important, cultural and environmental factors are likely to be influential causes of diabetes. Only 26% of Bangladeshis men and 11% of Bangladeshi women meet the recommended levels of physical activity [ 2 ] . Dietary intake of fat, salt, and carbohydrates is also high [ 3 ] . While immigration results in a change in environment, cultural norms may not change, and may

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Victoria Rus, Diana Opincariu, Roxana Hodas, Tiberiu Nyulas, Marian Hintea and Theodora Benedek

E, Permert J. Nutritional assessment and muscle energy metabolism in severe chronic congestive heart failure – effects of long-term dietary supplementation. Eur Heart J. 1994;15:1641-1650. 27. Iseki K, Yamazato M, Tozawa M, Takishita S. Hypocholesterolemia is a significant predictor of death in a cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2002;61:1887-1893. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00324.x. 28. Tuikkala P, Hartikainen S, Korhonen MJ, et al. Serum total cholesterol levels and all-cause mortality in a home-dwelling elderly population: a

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Nikolina Basic-Jukic, Bozidar Vujicic, Josipa Radic, Dragan Klaric, Zeljka Grdan, Goran Radulovic, Klara Juric, Karmela Altabas, Marko Jakic, Valentina Coric-Martinovic, Ivana Kovacevic-Vojtusek, Marijana Gulin, Nikola Jankovic, Dragan Ljutic and Sanjin Racki

, Sea MM, Ip R, et al . Independent effects of residual diuresis and dialysis adequacy on actual dietary protein, calorie and other nutrients intake in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 2450-2457. 19. CANADA-USA (CANUSA). Peritoneal dialysis study group: Adequacy of dialysis and nutrition in continuous peritoneal dialysis: Association with clinical outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 198-207. 20. McCusker FX, Teehan BP, Thorpe KE, et al . For the CANADA-USA (CANUSA) Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group. How

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Jiancheng Wang, Nengtai Ouyang, Long Qu, Tengfei Lin, Xianglin Zhang, Yaren Yu, Chongfei Jiang, Liling Xie, Liping Wang, Zhigui Wang, Shuzhen Ren, Shizhi Chen, Jiang Huang, Fang Liu, Weiqing Huang and Xianhui Qin

folic acid consumption[ 32 , 33 ] and that mandatory folate fortification of the grain supply in those countries may have reduced the Hcy levels in the total population and affected the power of the trials to detect a positive effect. Consistently, our recent meta-analysis found that lowering Hcy concentration by folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the progression of carotid intima-media thickness,[ 34 ] the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease,[ 35 ] and the risk of stroke,[ 36 ] particularly in those without dietary

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Gerald H. Tomkin and Daphne Owens

Introduction Bile acids are instrumental in solubilising dietary fat to allow intestinal absorption. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol, thus bile acid synthesis is a regulator of body cholesterol. The primary bile acids are chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid, which become conjugated in the human liver to taurine or glycine. The conjugated bile acids have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic moiety, which enables them to solubilize fat for absorption. Only the short chain fatty acids are amenable to absorption without the aid of bile acids

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Ana Jeromen, Irena Oblak, Franc Anderluh, Vaneja Velenik, Marija Skoblar Vidmar and Ivica Ratoša

-7. 43. Deans DAC, Tan BH, Wigmore SJ, Ross JA, de Beaux AC, Paterson-Brown S, et al. The influence of systemic inflammation, dietary intake and stage of disease on rate of weight loss in patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer 2009; 100: 63-9. 44. Stahl M, Wilke H, Stuschke M, Walz MK, Fink U, Molls M, et al. Clinical response to induction chemotherapy predicts local control and long-term survival in multimodal treatment of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2005; 131: 67

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Undurti N. Das

Introduction In a recent experimental study performed on animals, Yoshihara et al . [ 1 ] showed that the dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) prevented abdominal aortic aneurysm development through the inhibition of aortic and macrophage-mediated inflammation. In the model studied, the authors used angiotensin II infusion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to induce the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is evident from their results that though both EPA and DHA could suppress the development of AAA

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J. David Spence

Japan. In Finland, 38% of calories were from fat, but it was mostly animal fat, high in saturated fat and accompanied by a high cholesterol intake. In Crete, 40% of calories were from fat, but it was mainly olive oil. So it is not the amount of fat but the kind of fat that matters. [ 2 ] The Cretan Mediterranean diet is a high-fat/low glycemic index diet that was described by Ancel Keys, the head of the Seven Countries Study, as a “mainly vegetarian diet, … favoring fruit for dessert” and “lower in meat and dairy” than a Western diet.[ 3 ] The hypothesis that it

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Matej Skocaj, Metka Filipic, Jana Petkovic and Sasa Novak

-22. Lai T-Y, Lee W-C. Killing of cancer cell line by photoexcitation of folic acidmodified titanium dioxide nanoparticles. J Photochem Photobiol, A 2009; 204: 148-53. Lomer MCE, Hutchinson C, Volkert S, Greenfield SM, Catterall A, Thompson RPH et al. Dietary sources of inorganic microparticles and their intake in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn's disease. Brit J Nutr 2004; 92: 947-55.

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Richard A. Chazal

healthy dietary habits) and four favorable health factors (ideal smoking status, untreated total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, and untreated fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dL) in the absence of cardiovascular disease history.” 2 Rapid economic development in China has influenced adverse trends in lifestyle, including increased intake of saturated fat, physical inactivity, and smoking (especially among men). As a result, Drs. Bi and Ning noted that nearly 3 out of 4 Chinese adults have poor cardiovascular health. [ 2 ] The prevalence