References  Golonkov S.I., Koperin I.F., Najdenov V.I.: Energy use of wood of wastes. Lesnaja promyšlennos’, Moscow 1987 (in Russian).  Neuenschwander P., Good J., Nussbaumer Th.: Combustion efficiency in biomass furnaces with flue gas condensation. In: Proc. Biomass for Energy and Industry, 10th European Conference and Technology Exhib., 8-11 June 1998.  Marutzky, R., Seeger K.: Energy from wood and other biomass. DRD - Verlag , Leinfelden-Echterdingen. 1999 (in German).  Domanski M
Ladislav Dzurenda and Adrián Banski
Sławomir Grądziel and Karol Majewski
The paper presents the results of numerical computations performed for the furnace chamber waterwalls of a supercritical boiler with a steam output of 2400 × 103 kg/h. A model of distributed parameters is proposed for the waterwall operation simulation. It is based on the solution of equations describing the mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The aim of the calculations was to determine the distribution of enthalpy, mass flow and fluid pressure in tubes. The balance equations can be brought to a form where on the left-hand side space derivatives, and on the right-hand side – time derivatives are obtained. The time derivatives on the right-hand side were replaced with backward difference quotients. This system of ordinary differential equations was solved using the Runge-Kutta method. The calculation also takes account of the variable thermal load of the chamber along its height. This thermal load distribution is known from the calculations of the heat exchange in the combustion chamber. The calculations were carried out with the zone method.
Włodzimierz K. Kordylewski, Krzysztof J. Mościcki and Karol J. Witkowski
.02.019. Frandsen F., J. van Lith S., 2009. Detailed investigation of Cl-corrosion initiated by deposits formed in biomass biomass-fired boilers, FORSKEL-5820, Final Report No.0905. Hardy T., Kordylewski W., Mościcki K., 2013. Aluminosilicate sorbents for control of KCl vapors in biomass combustion gases. J. Power Technologies, 93, 37-43. Hardy, T., 2001. Laboratory set-up for investigations of deposits of biomass-firing with selected additives in the drop-tube furnace, In: Wejkowski R., Janda T. (Eds.), R&D Project Report ECOALBOILER
Catalityc removal of nitrogen oxide from combustion gases
Nitrogen oxide conversion to nitrogen over Pt/Al2 O3, Pd/Al2O3, Rh/Al2O3 catalysts was investigated. The results of the catalytic activity investigations, with the iso-x method, showed that NO reduction by methane occurs at a reasonable rate at the temperature range 200-500°C. Alumina-supported Pd, Pt and Rh catalysts have been compared for the selective reduction of NO to N2. All the catalysts showed good activity in NO reduction by methane, giving around 80 - 90% N2 production. At moderate temperatures Pt is the most active catalyst for the removal of NO.
Ladislav Dzurenda and Adrián Banski
Slovak).  Z iębik A., G ładysz P.: Influence of biomass cofiring on the optimal coefficient of the cogeneration share in a district heating system. Arch. Thermodyn. 35 (2014), 1, 99–115, DOI: 10.2478/aoter-2014-0007.  D zurenda L., L adomerský J., H roncová E.: Conversion factor of fuel-bound nitrogen to oxides in the process of spruce wood combustion in boiler grate furnaces . Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 24 (2015), 2, 505–509.  R ajniak I. et al. : Thermo-Energetic and Emission Measurements . Ister Science, Bratislava 1997 (in
Stanislav Honus, Veronika Sassmanová, Jaroslav Frantík, Przemyslaw Bukowsk and Dagmar Juchelková
The article is focused onthe energetical balance of a technical system for the conversion of crushed tyres by pyrolysis. Process temperatures were set in the range from 500 to 650°C. Mass input of the material was 30 kg per hour. The aim of the article is to answer the following questions as regards the individual products: Under which process conditions can the highest quality of the individual products related to energy be reached? How does the thermal efficiency of the system change in reaction to various conditions of the process?
On the basis of the experimental measurements and calculations, apart from other things, it was discovered that the pyrolysis liquid reaches the highest energetic value, i.e. 42.7 MJ.kg-1, out of all the individual products of the pyrolysis process. Generated pyrolysis gas disposes of the highest lower calorific value 37.1 MJ.kg-1 and the pyrolysis coke disposes of the maximum 30.9 MJ kg-1. From the energetic balance, the thermal efficiency of the experimental unit under the stated operational modes ranging from about 52 % to 56 % has been estimated. Individual findings are elaborated on detail in the article.
Iwona Gil and Piotr Mocek
References Dagaut P., Cathonnet M., Rouan J.P., Foulatier R., Quilgars A., Boettner J.C., Gaillard F., James H., 1986. A jetstirred reactor for kinetic studies of homogeneous gas-phase reactions at pressures up to ten atmospheres (~1 MPa). J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. , 19, 207-209. DOI: 10.1088/0022-3735/19/3/009. FLUENT 6.3 User’s Guide . Lebanon NH: Fluent Inc., 2006. Gil I, Tomeczek J., 2008 Investigation of combustion mechanism in CH4/CO2/O2/N2 system in the high temperature furnace. Thermodynamics
Janusz Kotowicz and Aleksandra Dryjańska
This article describes a thermodynamic analysis of an oxy type power plant. The analyzed power plant consists of: 1) steam turbine for supercritical steam parameters of 600 °C/29 MPa with a capacity of 600 MW; 2) circulating fluidized bed boiler, in which brown coal with high moisture content (42.5%) is burned in the atmosphere enriched in oxygen; 3) air separation unit (ASU); 4) CO2 capture installation, where flue gases obtained in the combustion process are compressed to the pressure of 150 MPa. The circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is integrated with a fuel dryer and a cryogenic air separation unit. Waste nitrogen from ASU is heated in the boiler, and then is used as a coal drying medium. In this study, the thermal efficiency of the boiler, steam cycle thermal efficiency and power demand were determined. These quantities made possible to determine the net efficiency of the test power plant.
Sylwia Jankowska, Tomasz Czakiert, Grzegorz Krawczyk, Paweł Borecki, Łukasz Jesionowski and Wojciech Nowak
References Antoniades C., Christofides P.D., 2001. Studies on nonlinear dynamics and control of a tubular reactor with recycle. Nonlinear Anal. Theory Methods Appl., 47, 5933-5944. DOI: 10.1016/S0362-546X(01)00699-X. Basu P., Fraser S.A., 1991. Circulating fluidized bed boilers - Design and operations. Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, USA, 41. Czakiert T., Nowak W., Muskała W., 2004. CFB oxy-combustion. Fluidization XI: Present and Future for Fluidization Engineering, Ichida, Italy, 9-14 May 2004
Rafał Litka and Sylwester Kalisz
REFERENCES De Souza-Santos M.L., 1989. Comprehensive modelling and simulation of fluidized bed boilers and gasifiers. Fuel , 68, 1507-1521. DOI: 10.1016/0016-2361(89)90288-3. Dryer F.L., Glassman I., 1973. High-temperature oxidation of CO and CH 4 . Symposium (International) on Combustion , 14, 987-1003. Fluent 6.3 User’s Guide. Fluent Inc, 2006. Hernik B., 2014. Numerical calculations of WR-40 boiler based on its zero-dimensional model. Chem. Process Eng. , 35, 173-180. DOI: 10.2478/cpe-2014-0013. Kordylewski W. (Ed.), 2008