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Elias A. Kotteas and Konstantinos N. Syrigos

processed. Using dendritic cells, it is possible to present antigens in a way that stimulates T regulatory cells, which would opposean antitumor response. APCs require a maturation signal in order to promote immunity. Partial maturation may be induced through toll-like receptor signaling from necrotic tumor cells. The successful use of checkpoint inhibitors led to a breakthrough in the development of cancer immunotherapy. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody Ipilimumab was the first checkpoint inhibitor that achieved durable objective responses in metastatic melanoma

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Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda and Beata Wojcik

erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 62(8):2467-75, 2010. doi: 10.1002/art.27548. 39. Sun Y., Zhang F.S., Zhang Z.Y.: Immunoregulatory effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on regulatory T cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosis. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 46(12):1018-21, 2007. 40. Tyndall A.: Application of autologous stem cell transplantation in various adult and pediatric rheumatic diseases. Pediatr Res 71(4 Pt 2):433-8, 2012. doi: 10.1038/pr.2011.66. 41. van Velthoven C.T., Gonzalez F., Vexler Z.S., Ferriero D

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Paramee Thongsuksai, Kowit Pruegsanusak and Pleumjit Boonyaphiphat

. Regulators of cell death. Trends Genet. 1995; 11:101-5. 5. Hall PA, Meek D, Lane DP. p53-integrating the complexity. J Pathol. 1996; 180:1-5. 6. Miyashita T, Krajewski S, Krajewska M, Wang HG, Lin HK, Liebermann DA, et al. Tumor suppressor p53 is a regulator of bcl-2 and bax gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Oncogene. 1994; 9:1799-805. 7. Serrano M, Hannon GJ, Beach D. A new regulatory motif in cell cycle control causing specific inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4. Nature. 1993; 366:704-7. 8. Mork J, Lie AK

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Xiao Feng Zhu, Wan Hui Cai, Jin Hee Jung and Yuan Hu Xuan

chindelasch D, T himm O, U dvardi MK, and S titt M. 2004. Genome-wide reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism, protein synthesis, cellular growth processes, and the regulatory infrastructure of Arabidopsis in response to nitrogen. Plant Physiology 136: 2483–2499. S onoda Y, I keda A, S aiki S, von W iren N, Y amaya T, and Y amaguchi J. 2003. Distinct expression and function of three ammonium transporter genes (OsAMT1;1-1;3) in rice. Plant Cell Physiology 44: 726–734. T abuchi M, A biko T, and Y amaya T. 2007. Assimilation of

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Iman Fahmy, Azza Amer and Nagwa El-Ghaffar

;2:78-83. Rich R. Exfoliation syndrome: The most common cause of open angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 1991;2:176-178. Raivich G, Jones LL, K Ioss CU, et al. Immune nervous system. T-Lymphocytes invade the axotomized mouse facial motor nucleus. J Neuro Sci. 1998;18:5804-5816. Streilein JW. Immune-regulatory mechanisms of the eye. Prog Retin Eye Res. 1999;18(3):357-370. Amadi-Obi A, Yu CR, Liu X, et al. TH17 Cells contribute to uveitis and scleritis and are expanded by IL-2 and inhibited by IL-27/STAT1

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Milan Marković, Sergej Tomić, Jelena Djokić and Miodrag Čolić

Immunol 2005; 20: 310-6. 4. Gazivoda D, Džopalić T, Božić B et al. Production of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines by inflammatory cells from periapical lesions in culture. J Oral Pathol Med 2009; 38: 605-11. 5. Fukada SY, Silva TA, Garlet GP et al. Factors involved in the T helper type 1 and type 2 cell commitment and osteoclast regulation in inflammatory apical diseases. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2009; 24: 25-31. http

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Claudia Salvadori, Tanja Svara, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Millanta, Darja Pavlin, Maja Cemazar, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Gregor Sersa, Natasa Tozon and Alessandro Poli

. Successful treatment of equine sarcoids with cisplatin electrochemotherapy: a retrospective study of 48 cases Equine Vet J 2012 44 214 20 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00425.x 22 Curiel TJ, Coukos G, Zou L, Alvarez X, Cheng P, Mottram P, et al. Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune provolege and predicts reduced survival. Nat Med 2004; 10 : 942-9. 10.1038/nm1093 Curiel TJ Coukos G Zou L Alvarez X Cheng P Mottram P Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune provolege and predicts

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Gordana D. Radosavljevic, Jelena Pantic, Ivan Jovanovic, Miodrag L. Lukic and Nebojsa Arsenijevic

Communications, 460, 302-307. 89. Markowska AI, Liu FT, Panjwani N. (2010). Galectin-3 is an important mediator of VEGF- and bFGF-mediated angiogenic response. J Exp Med, 207, 1981–1993. 90. Lindau D, Gielen P, Kroesen M, Wesseling P, Adema GJ. (2013). The immunosuppressive tumour network: myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells and natural killer T cells. Immunology, 138, 105–115. 91. Motz GT, Coukos G. (2013). Deciphering and reversing tumor immune suppression. Immunity, 39, 61–73. 92. Demotte N, Wieers G, VanDer Smissen P, Moser M

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Sabina Galiniak, Izabela Krawczyk-Merć and Agnieszka Pedrycz

cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 1998; 282(5391):1145-7. 8. Tabei I, Hashimoto H, Ishiwata I, Tokieda Y, Tachibana T, Akahori M et al. New approach for the establishment of an hepatocyte cell line derived from rat early embryonic stem cells. Hum Cell 2003; 16(1):39-46. 9. Itskovitz-Eldor J, Schuldiner M, Karsenti D, Eden A, Yanuka O, Amit M et al. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies compromising the three embryonic germ layers. Mol Med 2000; 6(2):88-95. 10. Pera MF, Tam PP. Extrinsic regulation of

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Sylwia Tobólska, Sylwia Terpiłowska, Jerzy Jaroszewski and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki

toxicological effects in vitro of this compound have not been deeply studied. Inosine pranobex potentiates T lymphocyte and phagocytic cell function. Moreover, it enhances mitogen-dependent and antigen-dependent lymphocyte DNA synthesis. It induces the gene expression of phenotypic markers of differentiation on immature precursor T cells, boosts helper or suppressor T cell functions, and increases the production of lymphotoxin ( 2 ). The drug has potential therapeutic use in animals. Immunotherapy may be especially beneficial in animals infected with viral strains