-3 PUFAs have antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer stem-like cells in vitro - J. Nutr. Biochem. 24: 744-753. Zajdel A., Wilczok A., Chodurek E., Gruchlik A., Dzieroewicz Z. 2013 - Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibit Melanoma Cell Growth In Vitro - Acta Pol. Pharm. 70: 365-369. Zijlstra J.G., deVries E.G.E., Muskriet F.A.J., Martini I.A., Timmer-Bosscha H., Mulder N.H. 1987 - Influence of docosahexaenoic acid in vitro on intracellular adriamycin concentration in lymphocytes and human adriamycin-sensitive and resistant
Farheen Jameel, Priyanka Agarwal, Mohd. Arshad and Mohd. Serajuddin
A. Pourmohammad, F. Shekari and V. Soltaniband
chloride applied at the beginning of stem elongation on spike- bearing shoots and other yield components of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 166, 270-274. Shafi M, Anwar F, Bakht J, Anwar S, Akhtar S., 2006 - Effects of different seed priming methods on the germination of various cereals. Sarhad J. Agric. 22, 209-214. Ntui V.O., Uyoh E.A., Udensi O., Enok L.N., 2007 - Response of pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia L.) to some growth regulators. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 5, 211
N. Parsai, F. Vazin and M. Hassanzadeh
In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation interval on yield and quantitative-qualitative characteristics of bread wheat, splited plot experiment in randomized block with four replications in the 2010-11 crop years was conducted in the research field of Islamic Azad University of Gonabad. A number of 7, 9 and 10 days irrigation treatments formed the main factors of test, and spraying and non-spraying of nitrogen and zinc were considered as subfactor of test. The results showed that the effect of irrigation was significant for the number of grains per spike in the level of 5% and on 1000-grain weight and fat percent at the level of 1%, and had no significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, number of spikes/sq m stem height, stem diameter and protein content. Nitrogen treatment was significant at the level of 5% on biological yield and number of spikes/sq m, but had no significant effect on grain yield, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, stem height, fat and protein percent, and stem diameter. Treatment with zinc was statistically significant in probability level of 1% only on percentage of fat and had no significant effect on grain yield, biological yield, grain numbers per spike, weight of 1000 seeds, spikes/sq m, stem height, protein percent and stem diameter. Seven days irrigation with of nitrogen allocated for highest seed yield (265.38 g/m2/sq m) and biological yield (659.33 g/m2/sq m). Means comparison showed the highest 1000-grain weight was obtained from 7 days irrigation (47.10 g) and the lowest from 13 days irrigation (40.44 g). According to the experiment results, 7 days irrigation was recognized as the best irrigation to achieve maximum economic performance and 13 days irrigation were determined as most appropriate irrigation for maximum performance for the region due to lack of water and weather conditions of Gonabad, spraying zinc and nitrogen to improve production was proposed depending on different irrigation and the purpose of production.
F.B. Anjorin, S.A. Adejumo, K.S. Are and D. J. Ogunniyan
Water stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting crop growth and development at every growth stages. Effects of water deficit on the vegetative growth stage of four maize varieties consisting of two Quality Protein Maize varieties (ILE1OB and ART98SW6OB) and two drought tolerant checks (TZPBSR and DTESTRSYN) were evaluated under the screen house conditions at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R & T), Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Maize seeds were sown in 20 L plastic pots filled with 15 kg top soil, which were subjected to four watering regimes of 25, 50, 75 and 100% field capacities (FC). The experimental design was a 4 × 4 factorial fitted into CRD with four replications. Data were collected on days to germination, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, leaf extension rate, biomass yield and water use efficiency. The result showed that days to germination were prolonged as the moisture availability decreases, while water use efficiency increased as the moisture level reduced. Reduction in moisture availability caused significant reduction in the other evaluated parameters. At 25% FC DTESTRSYN was superior in leaf area, number of leaves per plant, days to germination and water use efficiency, TZPBSR had highest values for stem diameter and biomass yield, while ILE1OB was superior in plant height, stem diameter, leaf and stem extension rate. ILE1OB competes favourably with the drought tolerant checks and performed better than ART98SW6OB. Adequate moisture condition is fundamental for normal growth and development in maize crops.
M. Kamel and A. Yazdansepas
In current study, 14 genotypes of bread wheat chosen by breeding tests in Zanjan Agricultural Research Institute of Iran were exposed to two experiment under irrigation and late season drought stress. The experiments were conducted between 2012-2013 in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed that, under non-stress condition, the differences among genotypes were significant regarding biological yield and grain weight per spike, while under stress condition in addition there were significant differences about grain yield and biological yield at pollination stage. Under normal and stress condition, the highest and the lowest biological yield was observed in genotype 3 (52.6 g per 15 stems), genotype 2 (35 g per 15 stems), respectively. The average weight of grain per spike decreased by 44.38 % under drought stress condition. In flag leaf removal experiment, results showed that the genotypes significantly differed under non-stress condition regarding the spike weight, grain weight per spike and weight of the leaves, except flag leaf, while under stress condition there were significant differences among genotypes in terms of biological yield, spike weight, peduncle weight at pollination stage, grain weight pre spike and weight of the leaves, except flag leaf. In leaves defoliation (except flag leaf), results showed that the differences among genotypes under normal and stress condition regarding spike weight, grain number per spike, biological yield, peduncle weight, and flag leaf weight were significant.
S.H. Mosavifeyzabadi, F. Vazin and M. Hassanzadehdelouei
In hot and arid regions, drought stress is considered as one of the main reasons for yield reduction. To study the effect of drought stress, nitrogen and zinc spray on the yield and yield components of corn, an experiment was carried out during the crop seasons of 2010 and 2011 on Emam Khomeyni research Farm in Mahvellat as a split factorial within randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main plots with irrigation factor and three levels were considered: full irrigation, stopping irrigation at anthesis step and stopping irrigation at the seed filling stage. Subplots were considered with and without nitrogen and zinc spray. The drought stress reduced the grain yield in anthesis stage more than other stages. Drought stress effects significantly on stem and ear diameter, ear length, chlorophyll value, leaf area index, leaf relative water content, stem, ear and leaves dry weight, number grain in ear and row, number row in ear, unfilled seed percentage and thousand grains weight. Nitrogen increased the seed yield and yield component except thousand grains weight and the number of row in ear. Using Zn, as compared with control treatment, causes the increase of grain yield, thousand grains weight and number grain in ear 16.5, 9 and 5.5%, respectively. The results obtained from the present research showed that anthesis stage was most sensitive stage to drought stress. Also nitrogen and Zn could somewhat reduce the impact drought stress on corn.
S. Kizil, Ö. Tonҫer and T. Sogut
Alkaloids, nitrogen containing basic substance, have a complex structure. They are one of the most important groups of secondary metabolites, which is synthesized in roots and transported to other organs. Since alkaloids are nitrogenous compounds, the availability of nitrogen is expected to play an important role in the biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in plants. Nitrogen affects yield and quality of medicinal plants, therefore, growers usually apply large amount of nitrogen to obtain high yields. The objective of the present study was to determine yield, yield components and alkaloid content of two henbane species (Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. and Hyoscyamus niger L.), collected from wild flora of South-eastern Anatolia, grown under four nitrogen applications (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha−1), in 2010-2011 growing seasons. In the field trial, plant height, stem diameter, number of branches per plant, number of capsule per plant, capsule width, capsule length, number of seed per capsule, 1000 seed weight, seed yield per plant and total alkaloid content were investigated. The results of study showed that nitrogen doses were found important for investigated characters but not important for Hyoscyamus species. Seed yield per plant varied from 8.4 to 11.6 g per plant, their alkaloid contents were found between 0.14% and 0.21%.
S. Kizil and Ö. Tonçer
Alkaloids of diferent plant, including many Solanaceae species, constitute important natural sources for variety of pharmaceutical products. The amounts of various secondary plant products are strongly dependent on the growing conditions and agronomical applications such as planting date, fertilization, irrigation etc. The aim of this was to study the effects of sowing date on some agronomic characteristics and total alkaloid content of thorn apple (Datura stramonium), investigated in the environmental conditions from Dicle University, Agricultural Faculty, Field Crops Department experimental area, during 2010 and 2011 growing years. In the research, plant height, stem diameter, number of branches per plant, number of capsule per plant, capsule width, capsule length, 1000-seed weight, fresh herb yield, herba yield, seed yield and total alkaloid content were examined. At the end of the study, in the trial of thorn apple with sowing dates, according to two years mean, seed yield, fresh herb yield, dry herb yield and total alkaloid yield were changed between 335 kg ha−1 and 704 kg ha−1, 5933 and 20537 kg ha−1, 1613 kg ha−1 and 4800 kg ha−1, and 0.270% and 0.391%, respectively. The effect of sowing date was found significant on the investigated characteristics, when sowing delayed, agronomic characteristics were also decreased. The highest values related with seed yield, fresh and dry herbage of thorn apple were obtained sowing of 01 Apr. Moreover, thorn apple plant showed morphogenetic variation when compared leaf and seed alkaloid contents.
C.A. Damalas, C. Alexoudis and S.D. Koutroubas
Common burdock (Arctium minus) is a common biennial weed of non-arable land in typical rural settings of Orestiada, Greece. The aim of this study was to describe the basic morphological traits of this species throughout the main phenological stages of its life cycle and to obtain some insight into its growth and productivity in Orestiada. Based on our observations, the plants occurred most commonly in moist and fertile soils, usually as isolated individuals or in small patches near the parent plants. The species is characterized by its large basal ‘elephant-ear’ leaves during the vegetative stage, appearing in alternate arrangement, with irregularly wavy and non-toothed edges, as well as with long hollow stalks forming a noticeable furrow on the top. By monitoring individual plants, it was found that fl owering (in the second year of growth) mostly occurred from late June up to early August. The fl owers were purple, occurring in bristly heads at the top of the stem. The bristly heads formed a fruit, containing small black seeds. The average number of capitula per plant, from randomly selected populations in Orestiada, was found to be 69.7 and 57.7 respectively, whereas the mean seed number per capitulum reached 30.3 and 33.3 seeds, respectively
M. Sarfraz, S.A. Khan, A. Moosa, A. Farzand, U. Ishaq, I. Naeem and W.A. Khan
In vitro antifungal potential of Trichoderma isolates, selective botanical extracts and fungicides against A. solani was evaluated. Trichoderma isolates, i.e. T. harzianum, T. viride and T. hamatum, were tested for their antifungal effect by dual culture technique at 48, 96, 144 and 172 hrs. T. hamatum produced the highest inhibition of A. solani in vitro, followed by T. hazianum and T. viride after 172 hrs. Methanolic leaf extracts of Elettaria cardamomum, Syzygium aromaticum, Curcuma longa and root extract of Parthenium hysterophorus showed up to 100% inhibition of A. solani, compared to control, while methanolic stem and leaf extracts of P. hysterophorus produced up to 90% inhibition of the pathogen. In vitro, six different systemic fungicides Triger 25% EC (Tebuconazole), Solex (Carbendazim 40% + Triadimefon 10%), Dew (Difenoconazole), Amistor Top SC (Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole), Corel 25% EC (Difenoconazole), Reflex (Difenoconazole + Propiconazole) were tested against A. solani at 5, 10 and 15 ppm concentrations after 48, 96, 144 and 172 hrs. Corel and reflex at all concentrations produced best growth inhibition of A. solani. The inhibition was maximum by all fungicides at 15 ppm after 172 hrs. All fungicides had a promising inhibitory effect on A. solani, except Solex. It can be concluded from the present investigation that a combination of these strategies can be used in integrated disease management of A. solani on potato.