Lea Ranacher, Kathrin Höfferer, Miriam Lettner, Franziska Hesser, Tobias Stern, Romana Rauter and Peter Schwarzbauer
of future consequences (CFC) ( Strathman et al., 1994 ) before participating in the focus group. The CFS is a survey instrument to assess the extent to which people emphasize short-term or long-term consequences of their behavior. A high score (max. 50) indicates a focus on the future implications of a behavior, whereas a low score (min. 10) indicates a focus on current needs and concerns ( Strathman et al., 1994 ). Furthermore, the questionnaire contained a module on socio-demographic features to characterize the sample.
In total, four focus group discussions
( 11 ), reduced reproductive performance ( 28 ), and increased risk of other illnesses, such as fatty liver, displaced abomasum, and metritis ( 23 ). These characteristics are usually indicative of an abnormal digestive capacity. The present study explored whether ketosis modifies milk yield, milk composition, and digestive capacity.
Material and Methods
Treatments and management . Fourteen Holstein cows with 2–3 parities were selected at 7–14 days postpartum. Cows with body weight of 606.4 ± 80.2 kg, body condition score of 2.86 ± 0.08, and previous lactation
Kibrom M. Alula, James H. Resau and Osman V. Patel
, Fiorentino M, Finn S, Fall K, Andersson SO, Andren O, Loda M, Flavin R (2012) Utility of multispectral imaging in automated quantitative scoring of immunohistochemistry. Journal of Clinical Pathology 65, 496-502. 22447914 10.1136/jclinpath-2012-200734
Fiore C Bailey D Conlon N Wu X Martin N Fiorentino M Finn S Fall K Andersson SO Andren O Loda M Flavin R 2012 Utility of multispectral imaging in automated quantitative scoring of immunohistochemistry Journal of Clinical Pathology 65 496 502
Goilav B (2011
Aluisio Goulart Silva, Maurizio Canavari and Katia Laura Sidali
usage had a positive effect on intention to use IP. However, the model scored quite modestly in terms of significance level of the relationships among perceived usefulness of IP on growers’ intention to adopt IP. This shows that our modification of Davis model should be rethought due to the relatively weakness of the findings. All in all, the main criticism on our model relies around the variable that Davis first labelled as perceived ease of use (PEOU). The expected positive effect of PEOU on PU of IP (H4: PEOU → PU) was not significant.
Our findings confirm
Birgit Fuerst-Waltl, Birgit Lang and Christian Fuerst
slaughter weight of approximately 10 kg (e.g., Ringdorfer et al., 2002 ) was considered. For deriving economic values for daily gain, the parameters of the Gompertz curve ( Fitzhugh, 1976 ) were changed in order to shorten the fattening period. As neither dressing percentage nor grading scores are relevant in kids, the average values for these traits ( Table 2 , Table 4 ) were assumed for the reference and all alternative scenarios.
3 Results and Discussion
The marginal utilities, genetic standard deviations (s a ), and the economic values per genetic standard
R. Byrne, J. Spink, R. Freckleton, P. Neve and S. Barth
( Kumar et al ., 2009 ).
The challenge for plant breeders is to identify traits that confer greater suppressive ability without incurring a yield penalty. Unfortunately, there is no reliable index that allows breeders to easily select for increased competition, making a difficult proposition more difficult yet. One of the challenges to future research in this area of IWM will be to develop a simple system of scoring crop traits that contribute to competitive ability ( Hansen et al ., 2008 ). This score could be provided alongside other traits, such as yield, disease
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Aneta Pluta, Katarzyna Podgórska, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak and Anna Łukomska
cytokines including IL-1β in PBMCs from pigs infected with PRRSV, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), or both. Their findings implicated that the exacerbated clinical signs and lesion scores in co-infected pigs were related to the increased secretion of IL-1β ( 30 ).
Regarding IL-8, its mRNA expression level was downregulated at 2 and 4 dpi and remained unchanged at 21 dpi in PRRSV-infected pigs. IL-8 is a neutrophil chaemotactic factor and plays a central role in the inflammation process. According to the majority of studies, PRRSV induces IL-8 production in PAMs, BALF
Joanna Marchewka, Ina Beltrán de Heredia, Xavier Averós, Roberto Ruiz, Adroaldo J. Zanella, Julia Adriana Calderón Díaz and Inma Estevez
correctly perceived. The delayed and elevated nociception should also be accounted for when scoring pain in animals, because what is considered as an extreme pain response can be a delayed effect of earlier acute pain. Finally, the reason for the increase in EC frequency on Day 5 is unclear. For the moment, we question whether the observed reactions are related to a potential transition from acute to chronic or no pain, or should they rather be explained by habituation to the testing procedure.
The hypothesis about differences in behaviour and activity
Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak
-matched curves fitted the curve well and meant a linear response over the range tested, in line with statistical modelling theory. From the statistical point of view, the convergence factor, one of the basic measures of quality and an indication of the closeness of match, should be greater than 0.9, proving an excellent fit (only a score of 1 qualifies as a perfect fit). Satisfactory apparent recoveries above 84% and below 110% were obtained for a concentration range from 5 to 50 μg kg −1 . The recovery values were in the reference range defined for minimum trueness of
Theresa Boeck, Stefano D’Amico, Elisabeth Zechner, Henry Jaeger and Regine Schoenlechner
lysine, which is the limiting amino acid in most cereal proteins ( Klose and Arendt, 2012 ). As a result, oat protein has a higher biological value than other, more prolamin-rich cereals, with a Limiting Amino Acid Score (LAA) of 49.8 for wheat flour and 66.9 for oat flour ( Suarez Lopez et al., 2006 ). Whether oat is suitable for consumption by patients suffering from celiac disease is still a subject of debate. While several studies showed no harmful effects of including oat in the diet of celiac patients ( Janatuinen et al., 2002 ; Tapsas et al., 2014 ; Lionetti