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Open access

Dorota Konopacka, Krzysztof Rutkowski and Witold Płocharski

Changes of Acceptability of ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Gala’ Apples During Storage in Normal Atmosphere

Proper development of storage marketing strategy for apples for fresh fruit market requires not only detailed information on dynamics of changes of objective quality indices during storage but also on their impact on consumer acceptability. The experiment was aimed at determination of ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Gala’ apple quality in relation to length of cold storage.

Apples were harvested at optimal stage of ripeness and their quality was estimated monthly starting from the day when fruit were picked up to 6 months of storage. Tests were made after cold storage at 0°C and after 7 days shelf-life at 18°C. Beside measurement of the most important parameters such as firmness, soluble solids, and acidity the studies covered measurements of changes of weight of single fruit, instrumental measurement of juiciness and sensory acceptability of texture and flavour made concurrently on laboratory scale and in semi-consumer tests (in a group of 40 respondents).

The largest decreases of firmness and juiciness were observed in the first and second month of storage. Changes of acidity and weight losses were proportional to storage period, while soluble solids changes were rather small and the direction depended on storage length. It was proved that the highest score for sensory acceptability received apples stored in cold room for one month. Slightly lower score obtained fruits tested directly after picking and after 2 months of storage. With extension of storage of fruit in the cold room sensory acceptability of both cultivars decreased when judged either by expert panel or by consumers.

According to the present fruit growers custom fruits of both cultivars after storage in normal atmosphere would be directed to retailers not earlier that at the end of December or beginning of January (i.e. after at least 3 months of storage), when their quality evidently decreases, and average consumer purchasing fruits in a store or at local market has no chance to esteem potential values of such popular cultivars as ‘Gala’ and ‘Jonagold’.

Open access

Anna Wrzodak, Elżbieta Kapusta, Justyna Szwejda-Grzybowska and Katarzyna Woszczyk

Summary

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the cultivation method (organic and conventional) on the sensory quality of carrot roots - fresh, stored, and cooked. The study was conducted in the sensory evaluation laboratory of the Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice in 2009-2011. The carrot roots came from a certified experimental field with a stable ecosystem, adapted for conducting experiments on the organic growing of vegetables. At the same time, in the same soil and climatic conditions, carrots were grown in the conventional system. The experimental material consisted of two varieties of carrot - Perfekcja and Regulska. In a two-year cycle, sensory analyses were performed of fresh carrot roots, and of roots that had been stored and heat treated. The evaluations were conducted by a 10-person panel of specialists using the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The results of qualitative sensory evaluations and the profilograms prepared on that basis for fresh and stored carrot roots indicated differences in the sensory characteristics between the tested varieties grown in organic and conventional systems. The greatest impact on the overall quality was exerted by the attributes: the carrot-taste, sweet taste, juiciness and hardness of the flesh. Organically grown carrots of the variety Regulska were characterized by the highest intensity of sweet taste and the carrot- taste, and by the best hardness, crunchiness, crispness and juiciness of the flesh. Fresh roots of this variety received the highest overall score. There were also some differences in the sensory characteristics of carrot roots after several months of storage, and then after cooking them, depending on the variety and cultivation method. In both years of the study, following the storage period, the cooked carrot roots of the variety Perfekcja from organic cultivation received the highest scores for overall quality. After storing and subjecting carrot roots to heat treatment, there was a significant decrease in the intensity of most of the quality descriptors, such as taste, smell and texture, when compared with the fresh roots under evaluation

Open access

Valentyna Meshkova, Serhii Nazarenko and Maryna Kolienkina

Abstract

Pine sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Diprionidae) are the most spread foliage browsing insects of pine forests in Europe, especially monovoltinous European pine sawfly Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy, 1785) and common pine sawfly Diprion pini (Linnaeus, 1758), which develops in one or two generations per year depending on weather. The outbreaks of both pine sawflies are the most frequent and intensive in the Steppe zone of Ukraine, especially in the Low Dnieper region, where pine forest (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus and Pinus pallasiana D. Don) was planted on moving sands in the sixties of the 20th century. This research is aimed at the evaluation of the parameters for D. pini outbreak dynamics in the Low Dnieper region.

Outbreak severity, specific foci area and mean score of stand threat by D. pini were evaluated from the regional statistical reports. In the regional scale for 1979–2017, notable outbreaks of D. pini were registered in 1982, 1993, 2002, 2006 and 2017. An interval between maximums was from 4 to 11 years, in average 9 years. The growth of foci area in 1979–1998 as compared to 1999–2017 as well as correlation between pine stand area and annual area of this pest’s foci in different forests was not statistically significant. Graphical analysis of dynamics of D. pini focal area for 2010–2017 was done based on individual threat levels. Our study confirms the fact of three outbreaks for this period in three forest and hunting enterprises (FHE), two outbreaks in one FHE and one outbreak in one FHE. An interval between the outbreaks makes three or six years. The causes of such shortening of interval are discussed.

Open access

Mahmoud El-Aziz, Sahar Mohamed and Faten Seleet

Production and Evaluation of Soft Cheese Fortified with Ginger Extract as a Functional Dairy Food

Soft cheese fortified with ginger extract as a functional dairy food was evaluated. Buffalo's milk retentate was divided into three equal portions. One batch had no ginger extract as a control. The latter batches were fortified with extract at the rate of 1.5 or 3.0 g/kg. All batches were salted with 4% NaCl/water phase. The resultant cheese samples were divided into 2 parts; one was separately picked in salted permeate (4%), while the other was stored without pickling at 5±2°C for 6 weeks. The results revealed that cheese pickling increased the cheese proteolysis and lipolysis, and decreased pH and TVFAs. Fortification with ginger extract enhanced cheese proteolysis and TFVAs, while reduced pH value and oxidative rancidity of cheese. Physically, un-pickled soft cheese was more springy, harder, darker and more yellowish compared with pickled cheese samples. Ginger extract caused an increase in cohesiveness, whiteness and yellowish colour degree, and decrease in hardness of both pickled and un-pickled soft cheese. Ginger extract-fortified cheese enhances the growth of L. lactis ssp. lactis and L. lactis ssp. cremoris compared with control cheese. However, ginger extract exhibited the highest growth for Lactococcus strains in pickled cheese. Yeast and mould were detected only in cheese control sample after 2 weeks. Ginger extract-fortified cheese gained the highest scores for flavour, texture and overall acceptability in both pickled and un-pickled cheese, which became more acceptable to panelists than control cheese over storage.

Open access

Julia V. Vanteeva and Svetlana V. Solodyankina

Abstract

Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol’khonie steppes and forest steppes, which are part of the Pribaikalskyi National Park (western coast of Lake Baikal, Russia). The aim of this investigation is the assessment of different landscapes’ values for the provision of ecosystems functions and services. To meet these objectives, fieldwork was conducted in the Priol’khonie steppes and forest steppes during the summer of 2013. The function of phytomass formation was considered for different land-cover types identified in the area, and the above-ground phytomass and inter-rill erosion were measured. The level of landscape degradation was estimated and draft maps of phytomass stocks and vulnerability to soil erosion of the investigated area were compiled. To show the dependence between the studied ecosystem functions and the ecosystem services provided by them, a scoring of the latter was made. It was found that characteristics of ecosystem functions varied significantly in the steppes of the Priol’khonie.

Open access

Małgorzata Białek, Jarosława Rutkowska and Justyna Radomska

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to determine consumer preferences by school-aged children and selected quality indicators of new, highly nutritive grain bars designed as a snack during school break. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by the scaling method using a five-point mimic hedonic scale. Triacylglycerols (TAG) and fatty acids (FA) composition was assayed in fats extracted from the designed bars (fresh and stored) by gas chromatography. Contents of oxidation and hydrolysis products were determined using peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV), and acidic value (AV). The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract from bars was measured by scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. The overall liking of bars was high (4.05 pts on average in the 5-point scale). The majority of children (71%) scored the designed bars as tasty and very tasty. The designed products contained 22.3% of fat with about 44 g/100 g FA of valuable fatty acids, e.g., short-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and odd and branched chain fatty acids (OBCFA), recommended for young organisms. The content of CN52, CN54, CN50 and CN46 triacylglycerols (TAGs) (about 49 g/100 g TAG) was due to both milk and cocoa fat. Storage of bars did not influence their content of oxidation and hydrolysis products, resulting from a substantial content of total phenolics (TPC) (53.64 mg GAE/100 mL of extract) and DPPH scavenging activity at the level of 24%. The designed bars may be an interesting confectionery product for children and an alternative to snacks currently available in school shops.

Open access

Munusamy Mohankumar, Ayyathurai Vijayasamundeeswari, Muthusamy Karthikeyan, Subramanian Mathiyazhagan, Vaikuntavasan Paranidharan and Rethinasamy Velazhahan

Analysis of Molecular Variability Among Isolates of Aspergillus Flavus by PCR-RFLP of the its Regions of rDNA

A total of seventeen isolates of Aspergillus flavus from maize were collected from different agro-ecological zones of Tamil Nadu, India. The isolates were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The amount of AFBM1 produced by the isolates of A. flavus ranged from 1.9 to 206.6 ng/ml. Among the various isolates of A. flavus, the isolate AFM46 produced the highest amount of AFB1. DNA was extracted from A. flavus isolates and their molecular variability was investigated by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA. PCR amplification with ITS1 and ITS4 primers resulted in the amplification of a product of approximately 600 bp. Digestion of the PCR products with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HaeIII and TaqI produced fragments of different sizes. Analysis of the genetic coefficient matrix derived from the scores of RFLP profiles showed that minimum and maximum per cent similarities among the tested A. flavus strains ranged from 0 to 88%. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) clearly separated the isolates into five groups (group I-V) confirming the genetic diversity among the A. flavus isolates from maize.

Open access

Jan Kowalczyk and Ihor Neyko

Wartość hodowlana wyselekcjonowanych rodów modrzewia europejskiego (Larix decidua Mill.) z pochodzenia sudeckiego na przykładzie powierzchni doświadczalnej w Zwierzyńcu Lubelskim

Open access

Pratigya Saksena, Sunil Kumar Vishwakarma, Ajay Kumar Tiwari, Atul Singh and Arun Kumar

Abstract

Red rot is one of the most wide spread sugarcane diseases in the country and has been a constraint on sugarcane productivity. Pathological as well as molecular studies were used to characterize the 11 isolates of Colletotrichum falcatum Went collected from sugarcane cultivars of different sugarcane-growing regions in northwestern states of India, to assess pathogen diversity. Seven reference pathotypes of C. falcatum from the northwestern zone of India were compared with four newly collected isolates of the same pathogen. All the newly collected isolates and existing pathotypes were inoculated on a set of 14 differentials in August 2011 by the plug method. After 60 days of inoculation, the observations were recorded and the pathotypes/isolates were categorized as resistant, intermediate, and susceptible according to the virulency behavior. On the basis of pathological categorization and comparison with reference pathotypes, it was concluded that the three isolates R1001 (CoJ 64), R1002 (CoS 88230), and R1004 (CoSe 92423) are similar to the existing isolate Cf 08, except for isolate R0401 from CoS 8436 (Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh). This isolate differs from all the reference pathotypes of the northwestern zone of India indicating the existence of a new pathotype. Pathological results revealed that variety CoJ 64 is the ancestor/source of prevailing new races in nature because these three new isolates showed similarity with Cf 08, of CoJ 64. In this area, Cf 08 was widespread. The isolates were further tested for their variability with random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Twenty RAPD primers were screened, out of which seven gave amplification. Out of seven amplified primers, only two primers showed the polymorphism among 11 isolates (seven reference pathotypes and four new isolates) of C. falcatum. Analysis of the genetic coefficient matrix derived from the scores of RAPD profiles showed that minimum and maximum per cent similarities among the tested C. falcatum isolates existed in the range of 11.11 to 87.5, respectively. The dendogram analysis by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), separated two main clusters. The first cluster comprises only two isolates (Cf 07 & Cf 08), however the second cluster comprises all the other isolates (Cf 01, Cf 02, Cf 03, Cf 09, Cf 11, R1001, R1002, R1004 and R0401), confirming high genetic diversity among the isolates. The study also indicates the possibilities of a new isolate (R0401) in Shahjahanpur, which needs further investigation at the sequence level. The investigation is in progress.

Open access

Krzysztof Adamowicz and Tomasz Noga

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