Bronk Ramsey C, 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program OxCal. Radiocarbon 43(2A): 355–363.  Damušytė A, 2005. Fossil molluscs of the Lithuanian Baltic coast. Quaternary Geology and Landforming Processes. In: Proceedings of the International Field Symposium, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, September 4–9, 2005. Apatity, 2005: 15–16.  Gaigalas A and Dvareckas V, 2002. The evolution of river valleys in Lithuania from deglaciation to recent changes and data from the
Algirdas Gaigalas, Anna Pazdur, Adam Michczynski, Jacek Pawlyta, Arūnas Kleišmantas, Monika Melešytė, Eugenija Rudnickaitė, Vaidotas Kazakauskas and Julius Vainorius
This article analyses the implementation of NATO`s comprehensive approach in the Lithuanian-led Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in the Ghor province in Afghanistan. The ambiguity of this approach - its meaning varies greatly accordingly to the specific organization or country implementing it - encourages discovery of the “Lithuanian” model of comprehensive approach. In order to achieve this goal, the network-society theory of sociologist Manuel Castells is chosen as the theoretical background of the analysis. By expanding this theory to the military domain and by conducting a quantitative, expert-interviews based analysis of the Lithuanian-led PRT, the level of “comprehensiveness” entrenched in the activities of the Lithuanian civil-military team is revealed.
The paper reflects on the conception of the phenomenon of fear employed in the international relations theory. A critique of understanding of fear as a rational incentive of conventional international relations theories paves the way for the notion of fear as an emotion. It is argued that the behaviour of states in international politics should be explained via their psychological and emotional aspects. The paper proposes to connect the arising of and experiencing fear with collective memory and the imagery entrenched in nations’ subconscious. It also proposes to distinguish the two levels of arising of and experiencing the emotion of fear, namely the attempt to consciously arouse fear and its nonconscious experience. On the first level, mnemonic-emotive agents consciously activate collective emotions via the nation’s collective memory. On the second, once the contents/imagery of the society’s subconscious are activated, the aroused emotions are nonconsciously experienced by the society. The paper offers a case study from the Lithuanian foreign policy: its relations with Russia. Discourse analysis of Lithuania-Russia relations, where President Dalia Grybauskaitė plays an active and important role in discourse formation, suggests that the formation of Lithuanian foreign policy, with regard to Russia, is affected by the emotion of fear.
The development of nuclear power in Belarus is an important issue addressed by Lithuanian foreign policy due to a mixture of geographic, political and nuclear safety concerns. Despite the pronounced relevance, the topic has received very limited academic attention. The paper attempts to fill this gap by identifying key objectives of Lithuanian foreign policy towards Ostrovets NPP and strategy for attaining them. The research is based on the analysis of high-level meetings and statements of six Lithuanian decision makers and a wide range of official documents. The paper argues that despite the apparent focus on nuclear safety of Ostrovets NPP, Lithuanian foreign policy aims to prevent its construction or at least to prolong the process. In order to do this, Lithuanian pressures Belarus via European Union and other international organizations and platforms by highlighting the nuclear safety issues of the plant, Belarusian non-compliance with Espoo and Aarhus conventions and presenting it as matter of international concern.
Linas Kojala and Vytautas Keršanskas
After regaining independence in 1990, Lithuania chose a strategic path to integrate into Western organizations, with clear priorities for the European Union and NATO, the biggest military alliance in the world. In Russia, such direction was regarded as a threat to its influence in the post-Soviet area. Hence the article seeks to provide an overview of Lithuania’s security policy, with specific emphasis on the role of Russia, in the recent quarter century. The aim is to distinguish key priorities for Lithuania and assess their practical implementation. Furthermore, the paper seeks to analyse the impact of the war in Ukraine, both on Lithuanian and regional security as well as the development of key security priorities.
Gintarė Pociūtė-Sereikienė and Edis Kriaučiūnas
Academic references  Berzins, A. & Zvidrins, P. (2011). Depopulation in the Baltic states. Lithuanian Journal of Statistics 50(1), 39–48.  Blowers, A. & Leroy, P. (1994). Power, politics and environmental inequality: A theoretical and empirical analysis of the process of “peripheralisation”. Environmental Politics 3, 197–228. DOI: 10.1080/09644019408414139.  Burbulytė-Tsiskarishvili, G. (2012). Measuring Peripherality and Accessibility for Lithuanian Regional Policy. Regional Formation and Development Studies 8(3), 25–35. [4
Eglė Vileikienė, Aušra Pocienė and Jolanta Aleknevičienė
The article presents an analysis of volunteer soldiers as a link between the Lithuanian military and society, their attitudes towards military service and their motivation to serve in the Lithuanian army. The authors looked at soldiers’ dedication to defend their Homeland and motives for serving in the Lithuanian army, presenting an assessment of the situation in the ranks and their overall satisfaction with military service. Volunteer soldiers’ expectations are also discussed, as well as their motives to remain in service, plus there are also recommendations for attracting new soldier recruits. The article concludes with the statement that Lithuanian volunteer soldiers are an important unifying link between the Lithuanian army and society, and can significantly contribute to the formation of the image of the soldier’s profession in society. Besides the social status that comes with military service and the satisfaction of financial needs, volunteer soldiers are exclusively characterised by strong patriotic feelings which determine their motivation to serve and defend their Homeland. The article’s findings rest on data from the complex sociological research study “Motivation to serve in the Ministry of Defence Volunteer Forces of the Lithuanian Military” which was conducted in April–November, 2014 by the Strategic Research Centre at the Institute of Military Science of the General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania.
Eglė E. Murauskaitė
This study traces and contrasts two parallel processes: the development of Lithuanian security culture since the country’s independence in 1990, and the evolution of NATO’s relation to nuclear weapons since the collapse of the Soviet Union. While Lithuania has historically been a vocal advocate for NATO shoring up defences vis-a-vis Russia, the nuclear nature of NATO’s deterrent has largely escaped the public discourse. Lacking historical traditions of open public discussion on matters of defence and security, the gap between Lithuania’s foreign and domestic discourse had only started to close in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukraine conflict. Narratives surrounding this watershed event also differ dramatically: for NATO it marked the end of the non-proliferation and arms reduction era, while Lithuania focused on the role of Russian militias and failed to take note of the changes in NATO’s nuclear stance. As NATO dusts off classical nuclear deterrent doctrines, posturing in the new geopolitical environment, the limited ability of Eastern European member states like Lithuania to adequately participate in these debates risks subsequently undermining the utility of the agreed concepts and eventually - chipping away at alliance unity. A Lithuanian case study offers insights into the security culture challenges common among NATO’s Eastern European members and partners - acknowledging and understanding them can help identify the building blocks needed to get more of these countries on-board as effective creators of a collective security environment.
Lina Pilelienė and Arvydas Petras Bakanauskas
of Consumer Promotions. California Management Review, 46 (4), 23-42. Ramanathan, S., and Dhar, S., 2010. The Effect of Sales Promotions on the Size and Composition of the Shopping Basket: Regulatory Compatibility from Framing and Temporal Restrictions. Journal of Marketing Research, 47 (3), 542-552. Statistics Lithuania, 2014. Main Lithuanian indicators. Retrieved 22 October, 2014, from http://osp.stat.gov.lt/en/
Dalia Dijokienė and Agnė Vėtė
. Challenges of designing new urban quality in historical environment: based on final projects of BA students of the Department of Urban Design, FA, VGTU. Architecture and urban planning , Vol. 8 2013, pp. 60–64. https://doi.org/10.7250/aup.2013.021 7. Ivanauskaitė, A. Miesto urbanistinės formos samprata ir jos taikymo galimybės Lietuvoje. Science – future of Lithuania , Vol. 7(1) 2015, pp. 46–54. 8. Juškevičius, P. Lietuvos miestų sistemos raida ir jos ateities perspektyvos. Miesto architektūra. Erdvės, formantai, akcentai [articles collection]. Vilnius