Nashiruddin Ahammed, Md Samim Hassan and Mehedi Hassan
In this research article, pure and 1 %, 3 % and 5 % aluminium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via sol-gel method and then calcined at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the structural, optical and thermal properties of synthesized pure and Al doped ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed high purity of nanoparticles in the synthesized products without any impurity peaks. Mean dimension of the nanoparticles was ~28 nm and they were hexagonal in shape, according to the images analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The optical absorption spectra of pure and Al doped ZnO samples studied using UV-Vis spectrometry have been presented and we have observed that the band gap increases with increasing Al concentration. In FT-IR spectra, the broad absorption peaks around 485 cm−1 and 670 cm−1 were assigned to Zn–O vibration. Above 450 °C, the TG curve became flat what means there was no weight loss. In the DSC curve it is seen that the transition at 150 °C was highly exothermic because of structural relaxation and on doping the exothermic peaks became shifted to the lower value of temperature. These types of materials are very useful in optoelectronics applications.
Surendra Singh, Anshuman Sahai, S.C. Katyal and Navendu Goswami
We have synthesized zinc-copper ferrite (ZCFO) employing exploding wire technique (EWT). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirm the formation of single phase spinel ZCFO, which is in good agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis, and Raman spectroscopic analyses. It is also clearly seen in the SEM micrographs that the grains in ZCFO ferrite are very rough, which allows adsorption of gas like oxygen and therefore, the material can behave as active sensing surface. The size range of the grains in prepared sample is of 200 nm to 500 nm. The FT-IR spectrum of the nanocomposite consists of two broad bands, one at 580.4 cm−1 due to M–O stretching mode at the tetrahedral site and the other at 400.7 cm−1 due to M–O stretching mode at the octahedral site. The nanoparticles show a UV-Vis absorption band in the wavelength region of 400 nm to 700 nm. The energy band gap for the prepared nanomaterial was estimated to be 3.16 eV. Thus, the ferrite nanocomposite prepared by EWT is optically active. According to present literature, Raman spectroscopy study on zinc-copper ferrite system has not been reported till date. By suitable attributing various Raman modes, we have further confirmed the formation of ZCFO nanophase through the present novel approach.
Polypropylene/carbon nanotubes (PP/CNTs) nancomposites were prepared with a single screw extruder by adding maleic anhydride-grafted poplypropylene (PP-g-MAH) as compatibilizer to polypropylene (PP) with different amounts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the range of 0.1–0.7 wt.%. Structure and morphology of the prepared samples were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarizing light microscopy (PLM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that PP spherulites decreased in size when CNTs were introduced into the polymer. Mechanical properties of the samples were also studied. Tensile tests showed that with increasing amount of CNTs the strain at break decreased whereas the Young’s modulus was improved of 16.41 % to 36.05 % and tensile strength of 36.67 % to 64.70 % compared to pristine PP. The SEM microphotographs showed that majority of the CNTs were dispersed individually and oriented along the shear flow direction.
S. I. El-Dek, M. A. Ahmed and Alaaeldin A. Eltawil
Two series of Mn-Zn nanoferrites (namely Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 and Mn1-xZnxFe2-yRyO4) were synthesized using standard ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction and FT-IR were employed in the chacterization of the nanopowder. The X-ray density for each sample increased after laser irradiation which was correlated with the decrease in the unit cell volume. The study involved the thermal and frequency variation of the dielectric constant and AC conductivity of the investigated samples before and after laser irradiation. The later altered the conductivity by decreasing its value for the rare earth doped samples except for the Sm3+ doped one. The results suggested the exploitation of Mn-Zn doped rare earth nanoferrites in many technological applications demanding high resistivity.
Shuiping Li, Qisheng Wu, Chong Cui, Guosen Lu, Changsen Zhang and Zhiye Yan
TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials were prepared via sol-gel method by loading titania onto Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve by hydrothermal treatment from coal-series kaolin as raw material. The TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, HRTEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange solution under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials possessed a high surface area of 369.9–751.3 m2/g and a homogeneous pore diameters of 2.3–2.8 nm. The titania crystalline phase was anatase, and the particles size of TiO2 increased with TiO2 content. The Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials exhibited excellent photodegradation activity under visible-light irradiation for methyl orange.
A new method of preparation of nanocrystalline zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) powder is described in this paper. Different organic acids are used as template material and nitric acid as an oxidant. Single phase ZnAl2O4 spinel can be formed at a much lower temperature through this route which gives nanocrystalline powder with uniform particle size and morphology. The powders are characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), BET surface area analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The average crystallite size of the single phase material was of 20 to 30 nm and the surface area was found to be 21 to 27 m2g−1.
Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/2 →6H15/2, 13/2, 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+ phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.
Neeraj K. Mishra, Chaitnaya Kumar, Amit Kumar, Manish Kumar, Pratibha Chaudhary and Rajeev Singh
A nanocomposite of 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 has been synthesized using a sol-gel route. Structural and optical properties of the nanocomposite have been discussed in detail. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy confirm the phase purity and the particle size of the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposite (13 to 15 nm). The scanning electron microscopy also confirms the porosity in the sample, useful in sensing applications. The FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of physical interaction between SnO2 and Al2O3 due to the slight shifting and broadening of characteristic bands. The UV-Vis analysis confirms the semiconducting nature because of direct transition of electrons into the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposites.
Atieh Aliakbari, Majid Seifi, Sharareh Mirzaee and Hoda Hekmatara
In the present paper, iron oxide nanoparticles coated by oleic acid have been synthesized in different conditions by coprecipitation method. For investigating the effect of time spent on adding the oleic acid to the precursor solution, two different processes have been considered. The as synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Magnetic measurement was carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the magnetic nanoparticles decorated with oleic acid decreased the saturation of magnetization. From the data, it can also be concluded that the magnetization of Fe3O4/oleic acid nanoparticles depends on synthesis conditions.
S. Reena Devi, S. Suresh, S. Kalaiyarasi, M. Nizammohideen and R. Mohan Kumar
A novel 4-methylpyridinium 3-nitrophthalate (4MP3NP) was synthesized and the crystals were grown by using slow evaporation method. The structural data of the grown crystal was collected by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It revealed that the 4MP3NP crystal belongs to triclinic crystal system with a space group P1. Structure of the synthesized compound was established using SHELXL 97 program package. The crystalline nature and composition of the grown crystal was established using high resolution X-ray diffraction and FT-IR analyses. UV-Vis transmittance and photoluminescence studies revealed the optical transmission window and electronic transition mechanism of ions, respectively. The laser damage threshold of the grown crystal was estimated by Nd:YAG laser and these results were mutually related to specific heat capacity of the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal was studied by Z-scan technique.