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The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a self- -emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) formulation to improve solubility and dissolution and to enhance systemic exposure of a BCS class II anthelmetic drug, albendazole (ABZ). In the present study, solubility of ABZ was determined in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants to identify the microemulsion components. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the microemulsification existence area. SEDDS formulation of ABZ was prepared using oil (Labrafac Lipopfile WL1349) and a surfactant/ co-surfactant (Tween 80/PEG 400) mixture and was characterized by appropriate studies, viz., microemulsifying properties, droplet size measurement, in vitro dissolution, etc. Finally, PK of the ABZ SEDDS formulation was performed on rats in parallel with suspension formulation. It was concluded that the SEDDS formulation approach can be used to improve the dissolution and systemic exposure of poorly water-soluble drugs such as ABZ.

Open access

Norbert Wild, Johann Karl and Bernhard Risse

From Research to Clinical Application Multi-Parameter Testing: Marker Panels for the Early Detection of Complex Diseases

Multi Parameter Analysis can open novel diagnostic opportunities for the early diagnosis and screening of multimodal diseases like cancer. Single proteins have so far failed to describe such complex diseases. Being able to screen with a set of analytes is one promising way to overcome the present limitations. Various marker identification tools including proteomics approaches have been successfully applied to identify new screening markers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is one of the most incident cancers worldwide and early detection is clearly a key factor in reducing mortality from CRC. Several screening methods are recommended, including colonoscopy, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and fecal DNA analysis. Of these annual stool testing with the guaiac based FOBT is most often applied, in spite of limitations such as low sensitivity and dietary influences. Though proce dures with improved performance eg. immunolo gical FOBT are available, a screening assay for CRC in serum that could easily be integrated in any health check-up would be highly welcome. A positive result of such a test would trigger a follow-up colonoscopy for an exact diagnosis. In this review we will cover aspects of marker identification strategies and describe a well structured marker validation process that is based on clinically characterized sample materials. Finally the value of analytical multi-parameter platforms enabling the combination of multi markers in routine diagnostics settings is outlined. An appropriate multi-parameter immunochemistry platform concept, currently developed under the working name »IMPACT« will be introduced.

Open access

Mustafa Serteser, Abdurrahman Coskun, Tamer C Inal and Ibrahim Unsal

AM, Allali G, Bridenbaugh SA, Kressig RW, Allain P, Herrmann FR, Beauchet O. Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study. Neurology 2010; 74(1): 27-32. 8. Trump DL, Deeb KK, Johnson CS. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy. Cancer J 2010; 16(1): 1-9. 9. Churilla TM, Brereton HD, Klem M, Peters CA. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Widespread in Cancer Patients and Cor - re la tes With Advanced Stage Disease: A Community Onco

Open access

Volodymyr Popovych, Mariusz Bester, Ireneusz Stefaniuk and Marian Kuzma

., & Kuzma, M. (2008). Ferromagnetic resonance in CdCrTe solid solution. J. Phys.-Conf. Ser. , 104 , 012010. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/104/1/012010. 11. Sreenivasan, M. G., Bi, J. F., Teo, K. L., Liew, T. J. (2008). Systematic investigation of structural and magnetic properties in molecular beam epitaxial growth of metastable zinc-blende CrTe towards half-metallicity. J. Appl. Phys ., 103 , 043908. 12. Kuzma, M., Stefaniuk, I., & Bester, M. (2010). Theoretical models and EPR study of Cr based diluted magnetic semiconductors. J. Phys.-Conf. Ser. , 213

Open access

He Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Hongyu Zhu, Hongtao Li, Taichao Su, Shangsheng Li, Meihua Hu and Haotian Fan

synthesis to be performed in a sealed tube under vacuum conditions. Usually, a conventional method of vacuum melting requires a long-duration heating process. Compared to it, the hydrothermal method is low cost and convenient for operating, what has been used for synthesis of many thermoelectric materials such as PbTe [ 12 , 13 ], Bi2Te3 [ 14 - 16 ] and CoSb3 [ 17 ]. As far as we know, there is little reported on the thermoelectric performance of hydrothermal synthesis of PbS [ 18 , 19 ]. In this paper, both PbS and Bi doped PbS were synthesized by a simple

Open access

Hülya Türkan, Ahmet Aydin, Ahmet Sayal, Ayşe Eken, Cemal Akay and Bensu Karahalil

Oxidative and Antioxidative Effects of Desflurane and Sevoflurane on Rat Tissue in Vivo

General anaesthetics are often used in patients who are under oxidative stress due to a critical illness or surgical trauma. Some anaesthetics may worsen oxidative stress and some may act as antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver, brain, kidney, and lung tissue oxidative stress in rats exposed to desflurane and sevoflurane and in unexposed rats. The animals were divided in three groups: control (received only air); sevoflurane (8 %), and desflurane (4 %). After four hours of exposure, we evaluated the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Cu, and Zn. Exposure to either of the anaesthetics significantly increased lung MDA levels compared to control (Mann-Whitney U test; P<0.05), probably because it is the tissue directly exposed to anaesthetic gases. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in other tissues varied between the desflurane and sevoflurane groups. Our results suggest that anaesthesiologist should not only be aware of the oxidative or antioxidative potential of anaesthetics they use, but should also base their choices on organs which are the most affected by their oxidative action.

Open access

Nishant Anasane and Rakshit Ameta

1 Introduction Over the last few years, semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) have received considerable attention due to their wide applications in optical and electronic devices [ 1 – 3 ]. Different shapes of semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted attention in last decades, due to their effect on their magnetic and catalytic properties [ 4 , 5 ]. Bismuth sulfide (Bi 2 S 3 ) is a semiconductor having a direct band gap (E g ) of 1.3 eV [ 6 , 7 ]. Doping of semiconductor nanomaterials with transition metal is important because it influences the electrical

Open access

Franciska Lančić, Slavenka Majski-Cesarec and Vera Musil

Školsko i profesionalno usmjeravanje učenika s kroničnim bolestima i drugim poremećajima zdravlja

Osim praćenja rasta, razvoja i zdravstvenog stanja učenika tijekom školovanja, liječnik školske medicine razmišlja i o njihovu profesionalnom razvoju. Posebnu pozornost zahtijevaju učenici s kroničnim bolestima, kojih je prema istraživanjima 10 % do 15 %. Prije izbora zanimanja potrebno je upoznati roditelje i učenike s ograničenjima koja proizlaze iz prirode bolesti ili stanja. To omogućuje učenicima da razviju interes za zanimanja za koja nemaju kontraindikaciju. Sistematski pregled u osmom razredu osnovne škole procjena je učenikovih psihofizičkih sposobnosti za nastavak srednjoškolskog obrazovanja. Tijekom pregleda provodi se profesionalno informiranje za sve učenike. Učenici s kroničnim bolestima, teškoćama u razvoju i drugim poremećajima zdravlja upućuju se na profesionalno usmjeravanje. Cilj ovog rada bio je prikaz razloga upućivanja na školsko i profesionalno usmjeravanje učenika osmih razreda, deset osnovnih škola iz Varaždinske županije, u razdoblju od školske godine 1998./99. do 2007./08. Od ukupno 4939 pregledanih učenika, na profesionalno usmjeravanje bilo je upućeno njih 458 (9,3 %). Najčešći razlozi upućivanja bili su bolesti i stanja iz skupine duševnih poremećaja i poremećaja ponašanja, sa zastupljenošću od 41,3 %. Preporuke stručnog tima za profesionalno usmjeravanje za daljnje školovanje nije slijedilo 10,5 % učenika. Za učenike s kroničnim bolestima i drugim poremećajima zdravlja bilo bi potrebno osigurati dovoljan broj upisnih mjesta u srednjim školama te kontinuirano pratiti njihov profesionalni razvoj radi intervencije u slučaju potrebe promjene škole i uvida u ishod obrazovanja. To bi se postiglo koordiniranim radom školskih liječnika, timova za profesionalno usmjeravanje, srednjih škola i županijskih upravnih odjela za prosvjetu, kulturu i šport.

Open access

Harald Mischak, Eric Schiffer, Petra Zürbig, Mohammed Dakna and Jochen Metzger

Urinary Proteome Analysis using Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool in Clinical Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapy Evaluation

Proteome analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to decipher (patho) physiological processes, resulting in the establishment of the field of clinical proteomics. One of the main goals is to discover biomarkers for diseases from tissues and body fluids. Due to the enormous complexity of the proteome, a separation step is required for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for proteomic analysis are described, focusing on CE-MS. CE-MS enables separation and detection of the small molecular weight proteome in biological fluids with high reproducibility and accuracy in one single processing step and in a short time. As sensitive and specific single biomarkers generally may not exist, a strategy to overcome this diagnostic void is shifting from single analyte detection to simultaneous analysis of multiple analytes that together form a disease-specific pattern. Such approaches, however, are accompanied with additional challenges, which we will outline in this review. Besides the choice of adequate technological platforms, a high level of standardization of proteomic measurements and data processing is also necessary to establish proteomic profiling. In this regard, demands concerning study design, choice of specimens, sample preparation, proteomic data mining, and clinical evaluation should be considered before performing a proteomic study.

Open access

Noemi Robles, Silvia Matrai, Vanesa Carral Bielsa, Joan Colom and Antoni Gual

Abstract

Background: Europe presents the highest rates of alcohol consumption per inhabitant, with an impact exceeding 6% of the DALYs lost. However, European researchers claim that most of the research in the alcohol field is conducted outside Europe. In order to assess this claim, a review of international indexed publications on alcohol marketing and availability, two cornerstones of alcohol public health policy, was performed.

Methods: A systematic search on Medline (1990-2009) was conducted by two independent researchers in order to identify articles that studied the availability or marketing of alcoholic beverages. The publication year and country of affiliation of the first author were recorded. The type and number of publications were classified according to the geographic area where the research was conducted.

Results: Of the 990 retrieved articles on availability, 214 were found relevant; of the 828 articles obtained for marketing, 249 were classified as relevant. Most of the alcohol availability- and marketing-related articles were published in the USA (52.3% and 59.0%, respectively). A total of 22.5% of the availability studies and 15.7% of the marketing studies were published by a first author affiliated to a European country. The European alcohol-related references have been generated mostly in the UK, the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands (73.4% of all European publications).

Conclusion: Despite the impact of alcohol in Europe, most of the research is conducted in other countries. Moreover, the volume of research is unequal among the European countries as well. European public health research in the alcohol field should be encouraged, involving countries with scant or non-existent research.