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Zoran Golušin, Olivera Levakov and Biljana Jeremić

Abstract

Urethritis is a clinical syndrome which is characterized by mucopurulent or purulent urethral discharge with or without dysuria, due to an increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the anterior urethra. Antimicrobial therapy and preventive measures are essential in the management of bacterial urethritis. However, these drugs may cause antimicrobial resistance, resulting in unsuccessful treatment and complications of urethritis. Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics is well known for decades, and in recent years there are more cases of resistance of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium to different antibiotics. There is a danger that in the future certain strains of N. gonorrhoeae will be resistant to all available antimicrobial agents, unless new antibiotics to which resistance will not develop rapidly or an effective vaccine are developed.

Open access

Norbert Wild, Johann Karl and Bernhard Risse

From Research to Clinical Application Multi-Parameter Testing: Marker Panels for the Early Detection of Complex Diseases

Multi Parameter Analysis can open novel diagnostic opportunities for the early diagnosis and screening of multimodal diseases like cancer. Single proteins have so far failed to describe such complex diseases. Being able to screen with a set of analytes is one promising way to overcome the present limitations. Various marker identification tools including proteomics approaches have been successfully applied to identify new screening markers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is one of the most incident cancers worldwide and early detection is clearly a key factor in reducing mortality from CRC. Several screening methods are recommended, including colonoscopy, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and fecal DNA analysis. Of these annual stool testing with the guaiac based FOBT is most often applied, in spite of limitations such as low sensitivity and dietary influences. Though proce dures with improved performance eg. immunolo gical FOBT are available, a screening assay for CRC in serum that could easily be integrated in any health check-up would be highly welcome. A positive result of such a test would trigger a follow-up colonoscopy for an exact diagnosis. In this review we will cover aspects of marker identification strategies and describe a well structured marker validation process that is based on clinically characterized sample materials. Finally the value of analytical multi-parameter platforms enabling the combination of multi markers in routine diagnostics settings is outlined. An appropriate multi-parameter immunochemistry platform concept, currently developed under the working name »IMPACT« will be introduced.

Open access

Mustafa Serteser, Abdurrahman Coskun, Tamer C Inal and Ibrahim Unsal

AM, Allali G, Bridenbaugh SA, Kressig RW, Allain P, Herrmann FR, Beauchet O. Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study. Neurology 2010; 74(1): 27-32. 8. Trump DL, Deeb KK, Johnson CS. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy. Cancer J 2010; 16(1): 1-9. 9. Churilla TM, Brereton HD, Klem M, Peters CA. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Widespread in Cancer Patients and Cor - re la tes With Advanced Stage Disease: A Community Onco

Open access

Volodymyr Popovych, Mariusz Bester, Ireneusz Stefaniuk and Marian Kuzma

., & Kuzma, M. (2008). Ferromagnetic resonance in CdCrTe solid solution. J. Phys.-Conf. Ser. , 104 , 012010. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/104/1/012010. 11. Sreenivasan, M. G., Bi, J. F., Teo, K. L., Liew, T. J. (2008). Systematic investigation of structural and magnetic properties in molecular beam epitaxial growth of metastable zinc-blende CrTe towards half-metallicity. J. Appl. Phys ., 103 , 043908. 12. Kuzma, M., Stefaniuk, I., & Bester, M. (2010). Theoretical models and EPR study of Cr based diluted magnetic semiconductors. J. Phys.-Conf. Ser. , 213

Open access

He Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Hongyu Zhu, Hongtao Li, Taichao Su, Shangsheng Li, Meihua Hu and Haotian Fan

synthesis to be performed in a sealed tube under vacuum conditions. Usually, a conventional method of vacuum melting requires a long-duration heating process. Compared to it, the hydrothermal method is low cost and convenient for operating, what has been used for synthesis of many thermoelectric materials such as PbTe [ 12 , 13 ], Bi2Te3 [ 14 - 16 ] and CoSb3 [ 17 ]. As far as we know, there is little reported on the thermoelectric performance of hydrothermal synthesis of PbS [ 18 , 19 ]. In this paper, both PbS and Bi doped PbS were synthesized by a simple

Open access

Hülya Türkan, Ahmet Aydin, Ahmet Sayal, Ayşe Eken, Cemal Akay and Bensu Karahalil

Oxidative and Antioxidative Effects of Desflurane and Sevoflurane on Rat Tissue in Vivo

General anaesthetics are often used in patients who are under oxidative stress due to a critical illness or surgical trauma. Some anaesthetics may worsen oxidative stress and some may act as antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver, brain, kidney, and lung tissue oxidative stress in rats exposed to desflurane and sevoflurane and in unexposed rats. The animals were divided in three groups: control (received only air); sevoflurane (8 %), and desflurane (4 %). After four hours of exposure, we evaluated the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Cu, and Zn. Exposure to either of the anaesthetics significantly increased lung MDA levels compared to control (Mann-Whitney U test; P<0.05), probably because it is the tissue directly exposed to anaesthetic gases. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in other tissues varied between the desflurane and sevoflurane groups. Our results suggest that anaesthesiologist should not only be aware of the oxidative or antioxidative potential of anaesthetics they use, but should also base their choices on organs which are the most affected by their oxidative action.

Open access

Nishant Anasane and Rakshit Ameta

1 Introduction Over the last few years, semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) have received considerable attention due to their wide applications in optical and electronic devices [ 1 – 3 ]. Different shapes of semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted attention in last decades, due to their effect on their magnetic and catalytic properties [ 4 , 5 ]. Bismuth sulfide (Bi 2 S 3 ) is a semiconductor having a direct band gap (E g ) of 1.3 eV [ 6 , 7 ]. Doping of semiconductor nanomaterials with transition metal is important because it influences the electrical

Open access

Ivan Kosalec, Snježana Ramić, Dubravko Jelić, Roberto Antolović, Stjepan Pepeljnjak and Nevenka Kopjar

Assessment of Tryptophol Genotoxicity in Four Cell Lines In Vitro: A Pilot Study with Alkaline Comet Assay

Tryptophol is an aromatic alcohol and secondary metabolite of the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans. Although its toxicity profile at cell level has been poorly investigated, recent data point to cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects in lymphocytes and the induction of apoptosis in leukaemic blood monocytes. In this pilot study we evaluated the genotoxicity of tryptophol in vitro on four permanent cell lines of animal and human origin: ovary cells, alveolar epithelium, liver cells, and blood monocytes using the alkaline comet assay. We selected cells that might be principal targets of tryptophol and other low-molecular geno(toxins) secreted by Candida albicans during host invasion. Our results suggest that tryptophol applied in vitro at 2 mmol L-1 for 24 h damages DNA in HepG2, A549 and THP-1 cells, obviously due to bioactivation and/or decomposition of the parent compound, which results in the formation of more genotoxic compound(s) and production of reactive species that additionally damage DNA. On the other hand, notably lower levels of primary DNA damage were recorded in CHO cells, which lack metabolic activity. Future studies with tryptophol should look further into mechanisms involved in its toxic action and should focus on other cell types prone to infection with Candida spp. such as vaginal epithelial cells or keratinocytes of human origin.

Open access

Yi-ping Zhong, Xiao-ting Shen, Ying Ying, Hai-tao Wu, Jin Li, Quan Qi, Can-quan Zhou and Guang-lun Zhuang

Impact of Transitory Hyperprolactinemia on Clinical Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of serum prolactin concentration at the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration on the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). A total of 184 patients receiving the IVF-ET/ICSI-ET from October 2005 to March 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the serum prolactin concentration [<30 ng/mL (A), 30-60 ng/mL (B), 60-90 ng/mL (C), ≥90 ng/mL (D)] on the day of HCG administration during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). In the Groups A, B, C and D, the implantation rate was 11.76%, 19.71%, 12.72% and 2.22%, respectively, and the pregnancy rate (PR) was 25.00%, 42.70%, 27.30% and 5.88%, respectively. The implantation rate and PR in the Group D were markedly lower than those in the remaining groups (P=0.011 and 0.009). During the COS, the serum prolactin concentration was dramatically elevated when compared with the baseline level leading to transient hyperprolactinemia. In addition, the implantation rate and pregnancy rate were significantly markedly decreased when the serum prolactin concentration was remarkably increased (≥90 ng/mL). To improve the clinical pregnancy rate of IVF-ET, close monitoring and appropriate intervention are needed for patients with an abnormal prolactin level during the COS.

Open access

Harald Mischak, Eric Schiffer, Petra Zürbig, Mohammed Dakna and Jochen Metzger

Urinary Proteome Analysis using Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool in Clinical Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapy Evaluation

Proteome analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to decipher (patho) physiological processes, resulting in the establishment of the field of clinical proteomics. One of the main goals is to discover biomarkers for diseases from tissues and body fluids. Due to the enormous complexity of the proteome, a separation step is required for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for proteomic analysis are described, focusing on CE-MS. CE-MS enables separation and detection of the small molecular weight proteome in biological fluids with high reproducibility and accuracy in one single processing step and in a short time. As sensitive and specific single biomarkers generally may not exist, a strategy to overcome this diagnostic void is shifting from single analyte detection to simultaneous analysis of multiple analytes that together form a disease-specific pattern. Such approaches, however, are accompanied with additional challenges, which we will outline in this review. Besides the choice of adequate technological platforms, a high level of standardization of proteomic measurements and data processing is also necessary to establish proteomic profiling. In this regard, demands concerning study design, choice of specimens, sample preparation, proteomic data mining, and clinical evaluation should be considered before performing a proteomic study.