., & Kuzma, M. (2008). Ferromagnetic resonance in CdCrTe solid solution. J. Phys.-Conf. Ser. , 104 , 012010. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/104/1/012010. 11. Sreenivasan, M. G., Bi, J. F., Teo, K. L., Liew, T. J. (2008). Systematic investigation of structural and magnetic properties in molecular beam epitaxial growth of metastable zinc-blende CrTe towards half-metallicity. J. Appl. Phys ., 103 , 043908. 12. Kuzma, M., Stefaniuk, I., & Bester, M. (2010). Theoretical models and EPR study of Cr based diluted magnetic semiconductors. J. Phys.-Conf. Ser. , 213
Volodymyr Popovych, Mariusz Bester, Ireneusz Stefaniuk and Marian Kuzma
Mustafa Serteser, Abdurrahman Coskun, Tamer C Inal and Ibrahim Unsal
AM, Allali G, Bridenbaugh SA, Kressig RW, Allain P, Herrmann FR, Beauchet O. Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study. Neurology 2010; 74(1): 27-32. 8. Trump DL, Deeb KK, Johnson CS. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy. Cancer J 2010; 16(1): 1-9. 9. Churilla TM, Brereton HD, Klem M, Peters CA. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Widespread in Cancer Patients and Cor - re la tes With Advanced Stage Disease: A Community Onco
Norbert Wild, Johann Karl and Bernhard Risse
From Research to Clinical Application Multi-Parameter Testing: Marker Panels for the Early Detection of Complex Diseases
Multi Parameter Analysis can open novel diagnostic opportunities for the early diagnosis and screening of multimodal diseases like cancer. Single proteins have so far failed to describe such complex diseases. Being able to screen with a set of analytes is one promising way to overcome the present limitations. Various marker identification tools including proteomics approaches have been successfully applied to identify new screening markers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is one of the most incident cancers worldwide and early detection is clearly a key factor in reducing mortality from CRC. Several screening methods are recommended, including colonoscopy, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and fecal DNA analysis. Of these annual stool testing with the guaiac based FOBT is most often applied, in spite of limitations such as low sensitivity and dietary influences. Though proce dures with improved performance eg. immunolo gical FOBT are available, a screening assay for CRC in serum that could easily be integrated in any health check-up would be highly welcome. A positive result of such a test would trigger a follow-up colonoscopy for an exact diagnosis. In this review we will cover aspects of marker identification strategies and describe a well structured marker validation process that is based on clinically characterized sample materials. Finally the value of analytical multi-parameter platforms enabling the combination of multi markers in routine diagnostics settings is outlined. An appropriate multi-parameter immunochemistry platform concept, currently developed under the working name »IMPACT« will be introduced.
He Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Hongyu Zhu, Hongtao Li, Taichao Su, Shangsheng Li, Meihua Hu and Haotian Fan
synthesis to be performed in a sealed tube under vacuum conditions. Usually, a conventional method of vacuum melting requires a long-duration heating process. Compared to it, the hydrothermal method is low cost and convenient for operating, what has been used for synthesis of many thermoelectric materials such as PbTe [ 12 , 13 ], Bi2Te3 [ 14 - 16 ] and CoSb3 [ 17 ]. As far as we know, there is little reported on the thermoelectric performance of hydrothermal synthesis of PbS [ 18 , 19 ]. In this paper, both PbS and Bi doped PbS were synthesized by a simple
Nishant Anasane and Rakshit Ameta
1 Introduction Over the last few years, semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) have received considerable attention due to their wide applications in optical and electronic devices [ 1 – 3 ]. Different shapes of semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted attention in last decades, due to their effect on their magnetic and catalytic properties [ 4 , 5 ]. Bismuth sulfide (Bi 2 S 3 ) is a semiconductor having a direct band gap (E g ) of 1.3 eV [ 6 , 7 ]. Doping of semiconductor nanomaterials with transition metal is important because it influences the electrical
Hülya Türkan, Ahmet Aydin, Ahmet Sayal, Ayşe Eken, Cemal Akay and Bensu Karahalil
Oxidative and Antioxidative Effects of Desflurane and Sevoflurane on Rat Tissue in Vivo
General anaesthetics are often used in patients who are under oxidative stress due to a critical illness or surgical trauma. Some anaesthetics may worsen oxidative stress and some may act as antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver, brain, kidney, and lung tissue oxidative stress in rats exposed to desflurane and sevoflurane and in unexposed rats. The animals were divided in three groups: control (received only air); sevoflurane (8 %), and desflurane (4 %). After four hours of exposure, we evaluated the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Cu, and Zn. Exposure to either of the anaesthetics significantly increased lung MDA levels compared to control (Mann-Whitney U test; P<0.05), probably because it is the tissue directly exposed to anaesthetic gases. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in other tissues varied between the desflurane and sevoflurane groups. Our results suggest that anaesthesiologist should not only be aware of the oxidative or antioxidative potential of anaesthetics they use, but should also base their choices on organs which are the most affected by their oxidative action.
Gordana Medunić, Iva Juranović Cindrić, Ivanka Lovrenčić Mikelić, Nenad Tomašić, Dražen Balen, Višnja Oreščanin, Štefica Kampić and Ivana Ivković
The aim of this study was to establish the fractionation of copper and zinc in a small apple orchard using the revised (four-step) Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure and assess their potential mobility in soil. Soil samples were collected at the depth of 10 cm to 25 cm, sixteen from the orchard and five control samples from a meadow located some 200 m away from the orchard. As the distribution of trace-element concentrations in the control samples was normal, they were used for comparison as background levels. We also determined soil mineralogical composition, carbonate content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil organic matter. The extraction yields of Cu and Zn from the control soil were lower than from the orchard soil (25 % vs. 34 % and 47 % vs. 52 %, respectively), which pointed to natural processes behind metal bonding in the control soil and greater influence of man-made activities in the orchard soil. Compared to control, the orchard soil had significantly higher concentrations of total Cu (P=0.0009), possibly due to the application of Cu-based fungicides. This assumption was further supported by greater speciation variability of Cu than of zinc, which points to different origins of the two, Cu from pesticides and Zn from the parent bedrock. Copper levels significantly better (P=0.01) correlated with the oxidisable fraction of the orchard soil than of control soil. Residual and organically bound copper and zinc constituted the most important fractions in the studied soils. However, the use of Cu-based fungicides in the apple orchard did not impose environmental and health risk from Cu exposure.
Lucia Maria Lotrean, Ilse Mesters, Carmen Ionut and Hein de Vries
Objectives: Research identifying reliable and country-specific predictors of smoking is needed in order to develop effective adolescent smoking prevention programmes. The objective of this study was to assess the cognitive and socio-demographic factors associated with smoking onset among Romanian teenagers, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data.
Methods: The data were obtained from a two-wave, one-year longitudinal study carried out among 316 senior high school non-smokers from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Questionnaires assessed smoking behaviour, attitudes, social influence, self-efficacy and intention regarding smoking (motivational variables) as well as different sociodemographic features.
Results: The cross-sectional analyses showed that socio-demographics and motivational variables were strongly associated with smoking behaviour; the explained variance was 76%. The longitudinal analyses revealed that four variables explained 33% of the variance in change of status from non-smoking to regular smoking over a period of one year. Regular smoking onset after one year was predicted by baseline low self-efficacy in refraining from smoking in different situations, having more smoking friends and playing truant from school. Having a brother was a protective factor.
Conclusion: The results suggest that smoking prevention programmes in Romania should strengthen self-efficacy beliefs and resistance against peer modelling and help Romanian young people to develop skills and action plans to cope with pressure to smoke and challenging situations.
Noemi Robles, Silvia Matrai, Vanesa Carral Bielsa, Joan Colom and Antoni Gual
Background: Europe presents the highest rates of alcohol consumption per inhabitant, with an impact exceeding 6% of the DALYs lost. However, European researchers claim that most of the research in the alcohol field is conducted outside Europe. In order to assess this claim, a review of international indexed publications on alcohol marketing and availability, two cornerstones of alcohol public health policy, was performed.
Methods: A systematic search on Medline (1990-2009) was conducted by two independent researchers in order to identify articles that studied the availability or marketing of alcoholic beverages. The publication year and country of affiliation of the first author were recorded. The type and number of publications were classified according to the geographic area where the research was conducted.
Results: Of the 990 retrieved articles on availability, 214 were found relevant; of the 828 articles obtained for marketing, 249 were classified as relevant. Most of the alcohol availability- and marketing-related articles were published in the USA (52.3% and 59.0%, respectively). A total of 22.5% of the availability studies and 15.7% of the marketing studies were published by a first author affiliated to a European country. The European alcohol-related references have been generated mostly in the UK, the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands (73.4% of all European publications).
Conclusion: Despite the impact of alcohol in Europe, most of the research is conducted in other countries. Moreover, the volume of research is unequal among the European countries as well. European public health research in the alcohol field should be encouraged, involving countries with scant or non-existent research.
Franciska Lančić, Slavenka Majski-Cesarec and Vera Musil
Školsko i profesionalno usmjeravanje učenika s kroničnim bolestima i drugim poremećajima zdravlja
Osim praćenja rasta, razvoja i zdravstvenog stanja učenika tijekom školovanja, liječnik školske medicine razmišlja i o njihovu profesionalnom razvoju. Posebnu pozornost zahtijevaju učenici s kroničnim bolestima, kojih je prema istraživanjima 10 % do 15 %. Prije izbora zanimanja potrebno je upoznati roditelje i učenike s ograničenjima koja proizlaze iz prirode bolesti ili stanja. To omogućuje učenicima da razviju interes za zanimanja za koja nemaju kontraindikaciju. Sistematski pregled u osmom razredu osnovne škole procjena je učenikovih psihofizičkih sposobnosti za nastavak srednjoškolskog obrazovanja. Tijekom pregleda provodi se profesionalno informiranje za sve učenike. Učenici s kroničnim bolestima, teškoćama u razvoju i drugim poremećajima zdravlja upućuju se na profesionalno usmjeravanje. Cilj ovog rada bio je prikaz razloga upućivanja na školsko i profesionalno usmjeravanje učenika osmih razreda, deset osnovnih škola iz Varaždinske županije, u razdoblju od školske godine 1998./99. do 2007./08. Od ukupno 4939 pregledanih učenika, na profesionalno usmjeravanje bilo je upućeno njih 458 (9,3 %). Najčešći razlozi upućivanja bili su bolesti i stanja iz skupine duševnih poremećaja i poremećaja ponašanja, sa zastupljenošću od 41,3 %. Preporuke stručnog tima za profesionalno usmjeravanje za daljnje školovanje nije slijedilo 10,5 % učenika. Za učenike s kroničnim bolestima i drugim poremećajima zdravlja bilo bi potrebno osigurati dovoljan broj upisnih mjesta u srednjim školama te kontinuirano pratiti njihov profesionalni razvoj radi intervencije u slučaju potrebe promjene škole i uvida u ishod obrazovanja. To bi se postiglo koordiniranim radom školskih liječnika, timova za profesionalno usmjeravanje, srednjih škola i županijskih upravnih odjela za prosvjetu, kulturu i šport.