From Lignite Mining to Tourism in the Lusatian Lakeland
Gerd Lintz, Peter Wirth and Jörn Harfst
economic decline involved, at the time, co-ordinating the large-scale rehabilitation of the mines with other endeavours that were aimed at developing the economy. In this way, a lakeland was created with the goal of establishing a basis for supra-regional tourism.
Chapter 2 introduces the conceptual foundations of the present contribution. It begins by discussing the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and regional structural change. This debate is followed by a deeper theoretical analysis of sectoral and regional co-ordination policies. Chapter 3 is devoted to a
Verhulitsa-Lutepää piirkonna liivikute taimkattest
Vegetation of inland sand knobs in South-Eastern Estonia was studied. 39 plant communities were described and thereafter classified into 7 syntaxonomic units: 1. Calluna vulgaris-Cladina spp. type, 2. Koeleria glauca-Cladina spp. type, 3. Juniperus communis-Arctostaphylos uva-ursi-Cladina spp. type, 4. Festuca ovina-Cladina spp. type, 4.1. Pinus sylvestris-Festuca ovina-Cladina spp. type, Deschampsia flexuosa variant, 4.2. Pinus sylvestris-Festuca ovina-Cladina spp. type, Thymus serpyllum variant, 4.3. Pinus sylvestris-Festuca ovina-Cladina spp. type, Pleurozium schreberi variant. Environmental variables determining the variation structure of samples are the amount (cover) of litter and the total cover of field and moss layers. The species richness of communities depends mostly on the amount of litter and marginally insignificantly (p = 0,051) also on humus horizon thickness. Interpreting the vegetation on 1×1 m sample quadrats as microcoenoses, 415 quadrats were clustered into 23 microcoenose types. The most frequent are the microcoenoses of Cladina arbuscula+Pycnothelia papillaria, Cladina arbuscula+Festuca ovina, Festuca ovina+Cladina arbuscula and Festuca ovina+Pilosella officinarum type, seldom occur microcoenoses of Cetraria islandica+Cladina stellaris and Polytrichum piliferum+Festuca ovina type. In all community types are presented Cladina arbuscula+Festuca ovina and Dicranum polysetum+Cladina arbuscula type microcoenoses but microcoenoses of any type are confined to only one type of communities. To maintain the peculiar features of Estonian inland sand knobs plant communities they must be kept open and in some places also the dense bottom layer vegetation must be removed.
Vanade salumetsade rohurinde koosseis ja seda mõjutavad tegurid
We aimed to study the composition of herb layer in old Estonian boreonemoral forests (Aegopodium and Hepatica forest site-types) and estimate factors that influence the vegetation. Besides forest management and other anthropogenic disturbances, stand age, geographic location and tree species composition were analysed as potential driving factors. We surveyed 169 forests, mostly as a contrasting pair of intensively managed and possibly near-natural forest within each sub-region of a forest site-type. Later, for analyses, we reclassified forests into three groups by weighted summing of the observed signs of disturbances. Analyses revealed the distinction in herb layer composition among forest site-types and dominant-tree species. Geographic location of a stand also appeared to affect the understorey, while stand age had no statistically significant impact on herb layer in old and over-matured forests. We did not detect explicitly the direct effect of forest management and disturbances on herb layer composition and diversity. However, indirectly, only in Hepatica site-type, the management increased herb layer species richness and the proportion of graminoids, by providing more light via reduced closure of a stand. Species characteristic of managed stands were mostly light-demanding, dry soil tolerant and apophytic species. Undisturbed stands were characterized by presence of nemoral and vernal herbs that typically grow in broad-leaved or mixed stands. Consequently, the dominance of conifers in managed forest, can limit the growth of characteristic species of boreonemoral forest site-types. Therefore, to improve the state of plant diversity in boreo-nemoral forests, tree species diversity and small-sized gap-initiation should be supported.
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