The history of hybrid vehicles has started between the 19th and the 20th century because then the first project of a hybrid vehicle was constructed. The first man who manufactured a front hub mounted electric propulsion connected with a generator powered by a spark ignition engine was Ferdinand Porsche. This vehicle was called the Lohner-Porsche Electromobile. The first mass-produced hybrid vehicle was the first generation Toyota Prius. The model premiere was in 1996 and the production started one year later. The vehicle was equipped with a 1.5 dcm 58 hp spark ignition engine and with the added electric propulsion. It generated 40 mechanical hp. Since 2000, a 72 hp spark ignition engine and a 44 hp electric generator were mounted. Fuel consumption of this model was 5 litres per 100 km. In the early 2000s, 95% hybrid vehicles were the Toyota Prius. The biggest competitor to the Toyota Prius was the Honda Insight. Lexus and Mercedes started manufacturing hybrid vehicles few years later. The most popular car brands that sell hybrid vehicles are Toyota and Lexus from Toyota Motor Corporation. This article describes an example of diagnostic possibilities for the hybrid vehicle system. The construction of vehicle models that use two propulsion systems (spark ignition engine and electric generator) results in the development and increase in control system devices. The measurements were made using various diagnostic devices, e.g. a diagnostic scanner, mustimeter, megohm-meter and oscilloscope. The reading of fault codes is not enough so it is necessary to use a mustimeter or a megohm-meter to examine the signal characteristics, which is presented in this article.
Jerzy Jackowski, Marcin Wieczorek and Marcin Żmuda
The characteristics of the car tire, and especially its deformation and interaction road, are mainly factors affected the energy consumption of the vehicle and consequently the amount of fuel consumption and emissions to the environment the harmful exhaust gas components. It is estimated that approximately 80-90% of the total energy losses (rolling resistance) are due to internal tire friction, which occurs during its deformation, the remaining 10-20% are ventilation losses, tread face interaction with the road surface and cyclical compression and expansion of air enclosed in the tire. Non-pneumatic tires (NPT) (as a direction of development) are the alternative solutions for conventional tires. Their advantages are as follows maintenance-free and the resistance to typical for pneumatic tires mechanical damages can be a major cause of their widespread use in future (and thus electric) cars. In the available publications, the results of the estimation of the features NPT based on numerical simulations are only presented. There is lack of experimental research results concerning real objects, which determine their driving properties.
Presented work is an attempt to check how the change in wheel structure affects the energy consumption of rolling wheels. Research objects (non-pneumatic tire and pneumatic tire) were selected for the size and destination compatibility. Experimental research were carried out at a universal quasi-static tire testing station, which is located at the Institute of Mechanical Vehicles and Transport at the Department of Mechanical at the Military University of Technology. According to the authors, the obtained results can be an interesting and unique supplement to the problem of assessing the properties of new and future (non-pneumatic tire) construction of vehicle wheels.
The air operations in controlled airspace performed according to Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) are composed of three main flight phases, i.e. departure, cruise, arrival. Controlled airspace is divided into the terminal area and en-route airspace. The terminal area encloses the departure and arrival phases while the en-route airspace encloses the cruise phase. The IFR procedures are designed for manned aviation to ensure the safety of air operations. Development of the aviation concerns among others the increase in the number of unmanned aviation operations. Currently, on the European level, there is an on-going, long-term program of integration of the unmanned aviation in the uniform (non-segregated) airspace. This work concerns the research in the integration of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) in the IFR procedures of the controlled airports. The objective was to build the reference models of Standard Instrument Departure and Arrival Procedures (SID and STAR). Basing on the procedure design guidelines the models of procedural nominal track, tolerance area, obstacle clearance area, climb or descend gradient, manoeuvres in SID and STAR were done. The guidelines describe the operational minima thus the statistics of existing procedures was done to select the suitable procedure parameters such as a number of navigational points, segments lengths, altitudes, climb or descent gradients. Reference models of SID include straight departure and turning departure procedures. Reference models of STAR include non-precision approach procedures according to used navigational aids, i.e. GNSS, VOR. The reference procedures were numerically implemented which will be used in the further works on RPAS integration problem by simulations of the RPAS ability to execute of the SID and STAR.
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are currently a very rapidly developing type of aviation. The problem of support during the take-off with the use of, i.e. take-off launchers arose along with their development, especially for UAVs with weights and dimensions preventing manual take-off. One of the major issues associated with UAV take-off launchers is for its UAV accelerating element to obtain its initial speed. The article presents three methods of determining launcher take-off speeds for unmanned aerial vehicles, i.e. the concentrated very oblique projection method, the high-speed camera methods, and the acceleration recorder method. The take-off launcher carriage speed in the oblique projection method is determined from a formula. This method involves “ejections” of concentrated masses from the UAV mass range and measuring the component values resulting from the used formula, which contains the range of the oblique projection, the elevation of the projection and its angle. The method using the high-speed camera involves recording the course of ejections of the concentrated mass from the launcher. The average take-off speed is determined on the basis of a take-off run length (section of the launcher race, where the unit accelerates) and defining the start and end frame of the carriage movement. The third method for the determination of the take-off speed utilizes an acceleration recorder. The method with the recorder involves registering a change in the accelerations when the take-off carriage is being accelerated by a system fixed on the carriage or the accelerated object. The article presents the methodology of dynamic tests of object acceleration on a launcher, necessary for the determination of speed with the mentioned methods. Selected results from actual tests with the use of the 01/WS/2015 launcher, which is an element of the ZOCP JET2 set, were presented. The test results are presented in a tabular form. The methods for the determination of the take-off speed were compared on the basis of performed tests. Based on the obtained results, the factors impacting the accuracy of each of the methods were identified.
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