The safety, comfort of the crews, stability, economics of the equipment when ship operating is the leading requirement in the field of designing and manufacturing marine structure and machinery. As a result, all parts of the ships must be tested and inspected to meet the basic safety requirements of the shipping association. The design, manufacture, testing in the maritime field in general and shipbuilding sector in particular are expensive, time consuming: such as aerodynamic experiments of the engine, collision test, ship manoeuvring, vibration test and balance of deck beams, hull beams, hatch covers, shafts...thus experimental works are sometimes impossible. Along with the development of computer science, many numerical models and software programs have been developed to solve these difficult problems. There are many numerical modelling methods, starting with the finite difference method, the boundary element method, the finite element method, the no mesh method, the weight residue or the energy method. The Work will be limited to the analysis of the most popular numerical modelling method - finite element method using Patran and Nastran software. In the first step of our research, T-beam was analysed as a part of ship hull structure (thin-walled structure). The article goes into the analysis of the accuracy of selected numerical models for the natural vibration frequency of the T-beams mounted on the plate. After modelling, calculating the natural frequency of the T-beam using the Patran - Nastran software, the results were compared with the theoretical values. From that, we evaluate the dispersion and error of different numerical models and select the optimal numerical model. Optimal model will be used for modelling full ship hull with superstructure.
The history of hybrid vehicles has started between the 19th and the 20th century because then the first project of a hybrid vehicle was constructed. The first man who manufactured a front hub mounted electric propulsion connected with a generator powered by a spark ignition engine was Ferdinand Porsche. This vehicle was called the Lohner-Porsche Electromobile. The first mass-produced hybrid vehicle was the first generation Toyota Prius. The model premiere was in 1996 and the production started one year later. The vehicle was equipped with a 1.5 dcm 58 hp spark ignition engine and with the added electric propulsion. It generated 40 mechanical hp. Since 2000, a 72 hp spark ignition engine and a 44 hp electric generator were mounted. Fuel consumption of this model was 5 litres per 100 km. In the early 2000s, 95% hybrid vehicles were the Toyota Prius. The biggest competitor to the Toyota Prius was the Honda Insight. Lexus and Mercedes started manufacturing hybrid vehicles few years later. The most popular car brands that sell hybrid vehicles are Toyota and Lexus from Toyota Motor Corporation. This article describes an example of diagnostic possibilities for the hybrid vehicle system. The construction of vehicle models that use two propulsion systems (spark ignition engine and electric generator) results in the development and increase in control system devices. The measurements were made using various diagnostic devices, e.g. a diagnostic scanner, mustimeter, megohm-meter and oscilloscope. The reading of fault codes is not enough so it is necessary to use a mustimeter or a megohm-meter to examine the signal characteristics, which is presented in this article.
Paweł Hyla, Agnieszka Kosoń-Schab, Janusz Szpytko and Jarosław Smoczek
Material handling systems, as an important part of different type of manufacturing processes, face the same challenges as manufacturing industries pushed nowadays forward by innovative ideas and technologies to the next level loudly announced as industry 4.0. Development of the next generation of automated manufacturing systems involves advanced approaches to material handling systems design and their close integration with the higher levels of manufacturing and production control and management, e.g. manufacturing execution systems (MES), enterprise resource planning (ERP). In the presence of increasing demands for manufacturing process optimization, the role of supervisory level of material handling systems is much more advanced today, ensuring not only data acquisition, visualization, monitoring, supervisory control, as well as synchronization with the higher control levels (FEM, ERP), but also providing functionality for supporting maintenance and decision-making processes to reduce downtimes, operations and maintenance costs. The article deals with the integration of control and maintenance functions in the hierarchical control system of a crane. The supervisory system for supporting control and proactive maintenance is prototyped at the laboratory overhead travelling crane. The article presents the control-measurement equipment and intelligent software tools implemented in the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system to aid decision-making process in proactive maintenance. The overview of the main components of the supervisory control and proactive maintenance subsystems is provided, and their respective role in control, supervision, and proactive maintenance is explained. The crane’s supervisory control includes the stereovision-based subsystem applied to identify the crane’s transportation workspace, determine the safety and time-optimal point-to-point trajectory of a payload. The proactive maintenance module consists of the human machine interface (HMI) supporting decision-making process, intelligent tools for upcoming downtime/failure prediction, and the crane's girder inspection using the metal magnetic memory technique.
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are currently a very rapidly developing type of aviation. The problem of support during the take-off with the use of, i.e. take-off launchers arose along with their development, especially for UAVs with weights and dimensions preventing manual take-off. One of the major issues associated with UAV take-off launchers is for its UAV accelerating element to obtain its initial speed. The article presents three methods of determining launcher take-off speeds for unmanned aerial vehicles, i.e. the concentrated very oblique projection method, the high-speed camera methods, and the acceleration recorder method. The take-off launcher carriage speed in the oblique projection method is determined from a formula. This method involves “ejections” of concentrated masses from the UAV mass range and measuring the component values resulting from the used formula, which contains the range of the oblique projection, the elevation of the projection and its angle. The method using the high-speed camera involves recording the course of ejections of the concentrated mass from the launcher. The average take-off speed is determined on the basis of a take-off run length (section of the launcher race, where the unit accelerates) and defining the start and end frame of the carriage movement. The third method for the determination of the take-off speed utilizes an acceleration recorder. The method with the recorder involves registering a change in the accelerations when the take-off carriage is being accelerated by a system fixed on the carriage or the accelerated object. The article presents the methodology of dynamic tests of object acceleration on a launcher, necessary for the determination of speed with the mentioned methods. Selected results from actual tests with the use of the 01/WS/2015 launcher, which is an element of the ZOCP JET2 set, were presented. The test results are presented in a tabular form. The methods for the determination of the take-off speed were compared on the basis of performed tests. Based on the obtained results, the factors impacting the accuracy of each of the methods were identified.
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