The characteristics of the car tire, and especially its deformation and interaction road, are mainly factors affected the energy consumption of the vehicle and consequently the amount of fuel consumption and emissions to the environment the harmful exhaust gas components. It is estimated that approximately 80-90% of the total energy losses (rolling resistance) are due to internal tire friction, which occurs during its deformation, the remaining 10-20% are ventilation losses, tread face interaction with the road surface and cyclical compression and expansion of air enclosed in the tire. Non-pneumatic tires (NPT) (as a direction of development) are the alternative solutions for conventional tires. Their advantages are as follows maintenance-free and the resistance to typical for pneumatic tires mechanical damages can be a major cause of their widespread use in future (and thus electric) cars. In the available publications, the results of the estimation of the features NPT based on numerical simulations are only presented. There is lack of experimental research results concerning real objects, which determine their driving properties.
Presented work is an attempt to check how the change in wheel structure affects the energy consumption of rolling wheels. Research objects (non-pneumatic tire and pneumatic tire) were selected for the size and destination compatibility. Experimental research were carried out at a universal quasi-static tire testing station, which is located at the Institute of Mechanical Vehicles and Transport at the Department of Mechanical at the Military University of Technology. According to the authors, the obtained results can be an interesting and unique supplement to the problem of assessing the properties of new and future (non-pneumatic tire) construction of vehicle wheels.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is well known method for reducing NOx emission in diesel engine exhaust gas. Urea-water solution (UWS) injected into hot stream decomposes due to thermolysis into ammonia and isocyanic acid which hydrolyses further into more ammonia and carbon dioxide. Resultant ammonia is the NOx reductor, producing water vapour and carbon dioxide from the reduction reaction. To provide sufficient NOx reduction efficiency, UWS needs to be properly atomized and mixed with exhaust gas. However, due to more and more restrictive emissions regulations provided by European Union and Close Coupled trend of aftertreatment systems in vehicles the design process is very complex and demanding. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are integral part of product development, allowing save time and reduce costs of preparing prototypes for further tests. However, it is necessary to understand all the processes and problems connected with NOx reduction in SCR system. Strong turbulent flow of hot stream gas, urea-water solution spray injection, droplets interaction with wall, wallfilm generation are included. The objective of this work is to investigate the impact of heat transfer modelling inside mixing elements of SCR system on urea mixing uniformity and wallfilm deposit on the walls of the system. Simplified and more complex approach is compared with no heat transfer cases. All the simulations were conducted using AVL FIRETM software. Results showed that wall heat transfer might have an impact on mixing efficiency and wallfilm formulation. It is necessary to take into account the effect of mixing elements heat conduction in CFD simulations during the aftertreatment design process.
The safety, comfort of the crews, stability, economics of the equipment when ship operating is the leading requirement in the field of designing and manufacturing marine structure and machinery. As a result, all parts of the ships must be tested and inspected to meet the basic safety requirements of the shipping association. The design, manufacture, testing in the maritime field in general and shipbuilding sector in particular are expensive, time consuming: such as aerodynamic experiments of the engine, collision test, ship manoeuvring, vibration test and balance of deck beams, hull beams, hatch covers, shafts...thus experimental works are sometimes impossible. Along with the development of computer science, many numerical models and software programs have been developed to solve these difficult problems. There are many numerical modelling methods, starting with the finite difference method, the boundary element method, the finite element method, the no mesh method, the weight residue or the energy method. The Work will be limited to the analysis of the most popular numerical modelling method - finite element method using Patran and Nastran software. In the first step of our research, T-beam was analysed as a part of ship hull structure (thin-walled structure). The article goes into the analysis of the accuracy of selected numerical models for the natural vibration frequency of the T-beams mounted on the plate. After modelling, calculating the natural frequency of the T-beam using the Patran - Nastran software, the results were compared with the theoretical values. From that, we evaluate the dispersion and error of different numerical models and select the optimal numerical model. Optimal model will be used for modelling full ship hull with superstructure.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are currently a very rapidly developing type of aviation. The problem of support during the take-off with the use of, i.e. take-off launchers arose along with their development, especially for UAVs with weights and dimensions preventing manual take-off. One of the major issues associated with UAV take-off launchers is for its UAV accelerating element to obtain its initial speed. The article presents three methods of determining launcher take-off speeds for unmanned aerial vehicles, i.e. the concentrated very oblique projection method, the high-speed camera methods, and the acceleration recorder method. The take-off launcher carriage speed in the oblique projection method is determined from a formula. This method involves “ejections” of concentrated masses from the UAV mass range and measuring the component values resulting from the used formula, which contains the range of the oblique projection, the elevation of the projection and its angle. The method using the high-speed camera involves recording the course of ejections of the concentrated mass from the launcher. The average take-off speed is determined on the basis of a take-off run length (section of the launcher race, where the unit accelerates) and defining the start and end frame of the carriage movement. The third method for the determination of the take-off speed utilizes an acceleration recorder. The method with the recorder involves registering a change in the accelerations when the take-off carriage is being accelerated by a system fixed on the carriage or the accelerated object. The article presents the methodology of dynamic tests of object acceleration on a launcher, necessary for the determination of speed with the mentioned methods. Selected results from actual tests with the use of the 01/WS/2015 launcher, which is an element of the ZOCP JET2 set, were presented. The test results are presented in a tabular form. The methods for the determination of the take-off speed were compared on the basis of performed tests. Based on the obtained results, the factors impacting the accuracy of each of the methods were identified.
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