Ranko Mladina, Neven Skitarelić, Cemal Cingi and Nuray Bayar Muluk
OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the foreign aspects in nasal septal deformities.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Mladina classification of the nasal septal deformities was used.
RESULTS. Types 5 and 6 have been dominantly inherited. The mechanism of the onset and possible connection to the trauma against the nose, as well as clinical implications of the remaining four types of the nasal septal deformities, have been explained and described in detail, giving the court expert witnesses the excellent opportunity to make a reliable and valuable finding.
CONCLUSION. Type 5 and type 6 nasal septal deformities are never the consequence of the trauma against the nose. In most of the cases, this also concerns type 3. This type as well as type 7 require the latero-lateral and anterior-posterior X-rays of the nasal bones in cases when the nasal pyramid is concurrently deformed. Types 1 and 2 in most of the cases are connected to trauma against the nose.
Vlad Budu, Mihail Tusaliu, Alexandru Coman and Ioan Bulescu
The pterygopalatine fossa is an inverted pyramid-shaped space of the viscerocranium, protected by bony structures. Surgical access to this anatomical space is difficult, especially for tumor resection. There are numerous open surgical techniques for accessing this space, but nowadays, minimally-invasive endoscopic approaches are preferred in order to increase postoperative quality of life and reduce postoperative morbidities.
The tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa can be benign or malignant, and can occur primarily in the fossa or as secondary extensions from the surrounding regions through the multiple canals and foramina in its walls. Squamous cell carcinomas of this space have been described to appear as extensions from the nasopharynx, the paranasal sinuses or through perineural extension from the cutaneous branches of the maxillary nerve.
In this paper the authors present a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the pterygopalatine fossa, which was excised in an endoscopic transnasal approach after preoperative selective embolization.
Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a clinical entity lacking consensual meaning, illustrating a rare nose surgery complication, particularly of nasal conchae surgery, which results in the destruction of the normal nasal tissue. In severe forms it may become debilitating; the inability in identification and appreciation of this syndrome turns detrimental to the patient. Physiopathology remains controversial, which probably implies disorders caused by excessive nasal permeability, affecting neurosensory receptors as well as the humidification functions and conditioning of inhaled air. Neuropsychological involvement is being suspected. Symptomatology is both variable and changeable, the most evident sign outlining paradoxical nasal obstruction. The diagnosis is based on a series of symptoms that need to be collected precisely, the objective examination that highlights the permeability of nasal fossae. The management is problematic; there are implemented a complete range of simple hygiene and humidification techniques of the nasal cavity and, for more severe cases, surgery is provided, regardless of technique, the surgery targeting partial filling of the nasal airways. Prevention is the most essential strategy along with basic conservative surgical techniques.
BACKGROUND. Olfaction is one the most important senses; however, even nowadays it is incompletely known in humans from an anatomical and physiological point of view, but also as concerns the assessment methods and treatment. The main causes for acquired olfactory dysfunctions involve inflammatory pathology (local or general) and head trauma. Olfactory impairment after traumatic head injury (THI) is more frequent than believed. Today there are a number of tests for assessing the loss of smell, but more studies are needed in order to establish standardized protocols for patients with such pathology after THI. This uncertainty is more and more exploited by malingerers.
OBJECTIVE. The aim of the paper was to find in literature the necessary information in order to permit a correct management of a patient with olfactory impairment after head trauma and to establish new protocols that may help identify malingerers when medico-legal implications exists.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied an amount of works and studies in order to highlight the diagnosis options specialist have, if such a case is encountered (olfactory loss after THI).
RESULTS. Recent studies show that great progress has been made, but more scientific research is needed. Specialists still search correlation between all diagnosis methods.
CONCLUSION. Olfactory disorders are an important topic given their importance in patient quality of life, but also for the medico-legal implications.
Andreea – Ioana Derjac-Arama, Stefania Anca Mihai, Mihai Sandulescu and Mugurel Constantin Rusu
Background. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be indicated when certain anatomic variations impede the normal drainage of the paranasal sinuses through the ostiomeatal complex. We aimed at studying the drainage system of the maxillary sinus which consists of the maxillary infundibulum, the main ostium of the maxillary sinus, the ethmoidal infundibulum and the hiatus semilunaris inferior.
Material and methods. The study was performed retrospectively on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 60 subjects (N=120 maxillary sinuses). The anatomical pattern of the maxillary sinus drainage was studied on coronal scans.
Results. As related to different morphological possibilities in the supero-lateral limit of the maxillary sinus drainage system, five different patterns were defined: in type I (55%) there was no pneumatization in that situs, in type II (18%) there was an infraorbital recess of the maxillary sinus placed above the sinus ostium, in type III (14%) an ethmoidal recess of the maxillary sinus was expanded within the ethmoid bone, above the ethmoidal infundibulum, in type IV (3%) there were Haller cells above the sinus ostium, while in type V (10%) there were non-infraorbital ethmoid air cells above and draining into the ethmoidal infundibulum.
Conclusion. It appears that CBCT is a reliable tool to make an anatomical distinction of the variable pattern of pneumatization impeding a normal drainage of the maxillary sinus, between maxillary sinus- and ethmoid-derived air-filled spaces.
Veronica Trombitas, Alina Nagy, Diana Vlad, Aranka Ilea and Silviu Albu
BACKGROUND. Silent sinus syndrome (SSS) is known as a relatively new pathology with clinical characterizations, represented by the facial asymmetry determined by progressive enophthalmos and hypoglobus and the absence of nasal symptoms. The theory that sustained this pathology is based on the negative maxillary pressure and the chronic evolution of symptomatology.
CASE REPORT. A 49-year-old white female presented in our clinic for facial asymmetry, right facial pressure, right depression of the orbital floor and hypoglobus, without diplopia. The CT scan showed an opaque right maxillary sinus with the depression of the orbital floor.
CONCLUSION. The pathogenesis, clinical and imagistic features are the most important in the SSS for diagnosis and correct treatment.
Daniela Vrinceanu, Ana Maria Oproiu, Mihai Dumitru, Madalina Georgescu and Mariana Costache
BACKGROUND. Excision of facial cutaneous carcinomas requires further reconstruction in a combined team with plastic surgeons. Among the traditional risk factors, the unprotected occupational exposure to sunlight can be identified. Giant masses at the level of the nose are frequently squamous carcinomas in origin. Moreover, repeated tumor trauma favours local-regional and remote extension.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present step by step the surgical management of an old woman with a nasal mass of 58/36/20 mm. Also, the patient presented right genian tumefaction of approximately 6 months in evolution.
RESULTS. The patient was submitted to surgical resection with free margins, leaving a considerable nasal and genian groove defect. Teaming up with the plastic surgeon, we applied complex reconstruction techniques with a satisfactory aesthetic and functional result. The histopathologic diagnosis confirmed our suspicion of an acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma with lymph nodes metastasis.
CONCLUSION. Our case exhibited traditional risk factors, living in a rural environment. The tumor degree of aggressiveness was increased by repeated self-inflicted trauma. Late presentation to healthcare services implied complex facial reconstruction for the combined resection of the nasal tip and genian lymph node.
Mohammed Khalid Alruzayhi, Muath Salman Almuhaini, Akrm Ibrahem Alwassel and Osama Mansour Alateeq
The current study aims to investigate the effect of smartphone usage on the upper extremity performance among Saudi youth. A goniometer to measure the Range of Motion (ROM), the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), McGill Pain scale and Chattanooga stabilizer were used to perform the current study on a sample of 300 university students from Al-Imam Mohammed Bin Saud University. The results have shown that smartphone addiction is negatively correlated to the elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, and both shoulder internal and external rotation. Furthermore, the results have shown that McGill pain scores were positively correlated to elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, and both shoulder internal and external rotation. The study has concluded that smartphone usage among Saudi youth negatively affects the upper extremity and causes a significant increase in the pain intensity. The study has recommended that there is an urgent need for a significant awareness campaign to warn the community regarding the impact of using smartphones for long periods of time.
Gabriela Musat, Laura Florina Neaga and Raluca Enache
BACKGROUND. Functional connection between the stomatognathic system and the acoustic-vestibular apparatus is approached with interest in topical studies, in an attempt to elucidate in depth the cause-effect relationship between pathology and symptom. The temporomandibular joint disorder may be accompanied by a series of otological symptoms such as otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo. For this reason, for a correct diagnosis, a complex clinical examination is required both on the acousticvestibular analyzer and on neighbouring structures.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We conducted a clinical study, on a group of 97 patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and treated for this pathology. All patients included in the study were evaluated by the dentist and the ENT specialist. The patients were treated at the dental clinic and then returned to the ENT clinic two months after completion of the treatment for re-examination, recording changes in otologic symptoms in order to obtain the results of the study.
RESULTS. Of the 97 patients with TMJD, 58 also associated otic symptomatology (otalgia – 74.13%, tinnitus – 53.45%, vertigo – 43.10%). The evaluation done two months after treatment of the temporomandibular joint disorder revealed a significant remission of otalgia (decrease in Mean VAS from 6.05 to 2.49), followed by vertigo (from 5.08 to 2.52) and by tinnitus (from 4.84 to 3.84). Important changes also occurred in the results of the vestibular assessments.
CONCLUSION. The most common otological symptom of patients with TMJD is auricular pain. Otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo can be improved by dental treatment of the temporomandibular dysfunction, auricular pain having the highest rate of remission.