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Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

Abstract

Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU.

Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being −20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %).

The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the experimental stand is equipped with sensors which provide measurements for electricity consumption and gained heat energy.

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Simulation of the Stock of Electric Appliances and Calculation of Standby Losses for Latvia

References Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1275/2008 // Official Journal of the European Union. - No. L 339/45. (18 December 2008). Energy Efficiency Branch, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Standby power store survey 2008-09, Interim Report, October 2008, No. 2008/12, Victoria, Australia. International Energy Agency. Saving electricity in a hurry. - France: Jouve, 2005. - 127 pages. Da Silva D., Cho Y-s., Rivière P. Field

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Financial Supporting Tools of Rural Tourism Development in Nitra Self-Governing Region

Abstract

Rural tourism is one of the opportunities, which can positively influence productivity and incomes in rural areas. European Union set the rural development as part of its priorities. This development has been conducted through several measures aimed at education, cooperation, municipality development, ecological agriculture, diversification of economic activities, etc. Rural tourism is a result of diversification of economic activities towards non-agricultural activities. The paper focuses on analysing financial tools of support used for rural tourism development. Development projects realized in the Nitra Self-governing Region (NSR) during programming period 2007 - 2013 (plus 2 years) are evaluated. These projects have been financed through different grant schemes created by the European Union (realised by Ministries, Local Action Groups, Agricultural Paying Agency) and also by the Nitra Self-governing Region. The paper also illustrates the localisation of approved projects and their purpose.

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Reduction of Coal Dust Concentration in the Air by Using Renewable Resources as Dust Suppressants

References Cargo turnover in ports of Latvia 1996 - 2008 / http://www.transport.lv/doc_upl/latvia_12eng.pdf Lēvalde V. Gerhards sliecas ogļu stacijas projektu realizēt Liepājā // Dienas Biznes - (2008., 9.aprīlis) / http://www.db.lv/Default2.aspx?ArticleID=b8f655e0-35bc-4487-925c-650a5b4e3084&ref=rss Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe // Official Journal of the European Union - L 152/1 (June 11, 2008

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Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

. Environmental Science and Education in Latvia and Europe , 2008, No 2, 3-4 pp. Making sustainable consumption and production a reality. European Commission. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010-32 pp. Environmental Policy. Legal and Economic Instruments. B. Klemmensen, S. Pederssen, K. R. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, A. Marklund, L. Rydén. Uppsala: Baltic University Press, 2007. 271 pp.

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The Planned Legal Regulation of The Eu’s Post-2020 Development Policy – or An Assassination Against the Countryside

Abstract

The European Union is a representative and guardian of fundamental values that secure the guarantees of the democratic functioning of the Member States. One of the core values of the European Union and of democracy is the rule of law, which includes, inter alia, the compliance of any interference with the law and the primacy of higher laws. The basic question is whether these core values are binding on the EU legislator itself as well? In this context, further questions can be raised such as whether the territorial approach inherent in Article 174 of the Treaty, which is the basis of the European Union’s operation, to what extent it prevails in EU law? How the countryside, as a territorial unit deserving particular attention, does appear in legislation and in EU development policy? Does the legislator strive to enforce the fundamental goals set out in the Treaty – such as strengthening cohesion, mitigating territorial differences? The paper seeks to address these issues primarily on the basis of an assessment of the EU draft legislation for the post-2020 period.

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Effects of Methyl Acetate as Oxygenated Fuel Blending on Performance and Emissions of SI Engine

.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.040 [6] Rodriguez-Anton L. M., F. Gutierrez-Martin F., Doce Y. Physical properties of gasoline, isobutanol and ETBE binary blends in comparison with gasoline ethanol blends. Fuel 2016:166:73-78. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.106 [7] Mccormick R. L., Parish R. Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels Program and Renewable Diesel Program. Milestone Report: Technical Barriers to the Use of Ethanol in Diesel Fuel. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2001. [8] European Union. Directive 2009/28/EC of the European

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Characteristics of mechanically sorted municipal wastes and their suitability for production of refuse derived fuel

References 1. Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, Waste generation and treatment, 2010, [Online]. Available: http//epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_databas e. [Accessed: 02.03.2012.]. 2. Directive 2008/98/Ec Of The European Parliament And Of The Council Of 19 November 2008 On Waste And Repealing Certain Directives Official Journal L 312, 22/11/2008 P.0003-0030. [Online]. Available: http://eur-lex.europa.eu. [Accessed: 05.03.2012]. 3. Stegmann, R

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Possibilities for Utilization of Solar Thermal Energy in Multi-Family Buildings in Latvia

-88. Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia. Energy statistics. [Online] [Cited: May 20, 2011.] Šúri, M., et al., et al. Potential of solar electricity generation in the European Union member states and candidate countries. JRC. [Online] Solar Energy, 2007. [Cited: 27 June 2011.] http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/ European Commision. Eurostat database. [Online] [Cited: May 25, 2011.] European Solar Thermal Industry Federation. Solar Thermal Markets in Europe, Market Statistics 2010. Brussels

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Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

2003/30/EC. L 140/16 EN Official Journal of the European Union 5.6.2009 4. Guidelines for Use of Renewable Energy 2006.-2013.year (information part), Riga 2006, 55 p. (in Latvian) 5. Renewable energy sources - http://www.em.gov.lv/em/2nd/?cat=30170 - [02.07.2011] 6. Latvian energy strategy 2030 - Project, Latvian Ministry of Economy, 68 pp. (in Latvian) http://www.bra.lv/images/editor/31082011%20- %20Energetikas%20strategija%202030%20projekts%20%282%29.pdf - [26.03.2012] 7. Porubova, J., Bažbauers , G

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