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E. Wałecka-Zacharska, K. Kosek-Paszkowska, J. Bania, Z. Staroniewicz, M. Bednarski and A. Wieliczko

substitutions in virulence genes characterizing phenotypic groups of low-virulence field strains of Listeria monocytogenes . Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 6039-6048. Témoin S, Roche SM, Grépinet O, Fardini Y, Velge P ( 2008 ) Multiple point mutations in virulence genes explain the low virulence of Listeria monocytogenes field strains. Microbiology 154: 939-948. Vhzquez-Boland JA, Kuhn M, Berche P, Chakraborty T, Domtnguez-Bernal G, Goebel W, Gonzhlez-Zorn B, Wehland J, Kreft J ( 2001 ) Listeria pathogenesis and molecular virulence determinants. Clin Microbiol

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Suda Louisirirotchanakul, Pornparn Rojanasang, Kleophant Thakerngpol, Naree Choosrichom, Kridsda Chaichoune, Phisanu Pooruk, Aphinya Namsai, Robert Webster and Pilaipan Puthavathana

Abstract

Background: An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Thailand was first reported in 2004. To date, electron micrographs demonstrating the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particle are quite limited.

Objective: To demonstrate the morphology of HPAI H5N1 virus particles, avian influenza viruses with low pathogenicity, seasonal influenza viruses, and H5N1 structural components in infected cells. The M amino acid residues that might affect the viral morphology were also analyzed.

Methods: Electron micrographs of negatively-stained virus particles and positively-stained thin sections of the HPAI H5N1 virus infected cells were visualized under a transmission electron microscope. M amino acid sequences of the study viruses were retrieved from the GenBank database and aligned with those of reference strains with known morphology and residues that are unique for the morphological type of the virus particles.

Results: Morphologically, three forms of influenza virus particles, spherical, regular, and irregular rods, and long filamentous particles, were demonstrated. However, the spherical form was the most predominant morphological type and accounted for more than 80% of the virus populations examined. In addition, the viral entry and exit steps including incomplete particles in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were visualized. Our analyses did not find any M amino acid residues that might influence the viral morphology.

Conclusion: Of all virus isolates studied, we demonstrated that the spherical particles were the major population observed regardless of virus subtype, host of origin, virus virulence, or passage history. Our study suggested that the morphology of influenza virus particles released, might not be strongly influenced by M gene polymorphism.

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Marcin Weiner, Maria Kubajka, Krzysztof Szulowski, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska and Marek Lipiec

M., Rastawicki W.: Evaluation of usefulness for selected virulence markers for identifying pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. IV. Genes myfA and myfC and ureC. Med Dosw Mikrobiol 2002, 54, 347-355. 4. Gyuranecz M., Erdelyi K., Makrai L., Fodor L., Szepe B., Raczne Meszaros A., Dan A., Dencso L., Fassang E., Szeredi L.: Brucellosis of the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). J Comp Path 2011, 145, 1-5. 5. Harnett N., Lin Y.P., Krishahn C.: Detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica using the multiplex polymerase chain

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Magdalena Fidecka-Skwarzynska, Marek Juda, Lucyna Maziarczyk and Anna Malm

References 1. Alberici I. et al.: Pathogens causing urinary tract infections in infants: A European overview by the ESCAPE study group. Eur. J. Pediatr., 2014. 2. Bien J. et al.: Role of uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence factors in development of urinary tract infection and kidney damage. Int. J. Nephrol., 2012, Article ID 681473, 2012. doi: 10.1155/2012/681473 3. Firoozeh F. et al.: Detection of virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with cystitis and pyelonephritis. Int. J. Infect

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Xiaojing Xu, Xiang Chen, Song Gao and Lixiang Zhao

References 1. Begg K.J., Dewar S.J., Donachie W.D.: A new Escherichia coli cell division gene, ftsK. J Bacteriol 1995, 177, 6211-6222. 2. Bigot S., Sivanathan V., Possoz C., Barre F.X., Cornet F.: FtsK, a literate chromosome segregation machine. Mol Microbiol 2007, 64, 1434-1441. 3. Chen X., Gao S., Wang X.Q., Jiao X.A., Liu X.F.: Identification of APEC genes expressed in vivo by selective capture of transcribed sequences. Acta Microbiol Sin 2007, 47, 407-412. 4. Dho M., Lafont J.P.: Adhesive

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A. Platt-Samoraj, K. Syczyło, A. Bancerz-Kisiel, A. Szczerba-Turek, A. Giżejewska and W. Szweda

References Bancerz-Kisiel A, Szczerba-Turek A, Lipczyńska K, Stenzel T, Szweda W ( 2012 ) Bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ) and pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ). J Food Prot 12: 2219-2222. Bottone EJ ( 1997 ) Yersinia enterocolitica : the charisma continues. Clin Microbiol Rev 10: 257-276. Hacking MA, Sileo L ( 1974 ) Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis from wildlife in Ontario. J Wildl Dis 10: 452-457. Kaneko K, Hashimoto N ( 1981

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Marek Selwet and Mariola Galbas

References 1. Andrzejewska M., Klawe J.J., Szczepańska B., Śpica D.: Occurrence of virulence genes among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic animals and children. Pol J Vet Sci 2011, 2 , 207-211. 2. Bang D.D., Scheutz F., Ahrens P., Pedersen K., Blom J., Madsen M.: Prevalence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes and CDT production in Campylobacter spp. isolated from Danish broilers. J Med Microbiol 2001, 50 , 1087-1094. 3. Carvalho A.C., Ruiz-Palacios G

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Krzysztof Kowalczyk, Daniela Gruszecka, Michał Nowak and Justyna Leśniowska-Nowak

. Plant Pathology 33: 279-300. Costamilan LM. 2005. Variability of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici in the 2003 crop season. Fitopatologia Brasileira 30: 420-422. Ge Y, Johnson JW, Roberts JJ, and Rajaram S. 1998. Temperature and resistance gene interactions in the expression of resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici . Euphytica 99: 103-109. Gupta PK, Varshney RK, Sharma PC, and Ramesh B. 1999. Molecular markers and their applications in

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Monika Godzina, Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz and Katarzyna Szymczykiewicz

behavior of two potato aphid clones with differing levels of virulence. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 135: 295-307. Rossi M., Goggin F. L., Milligan S. B., Kaloshian I., Ullman D. E., Williamson V. M. 1998. The nematode resistance gene Mi of tomato confers resistance against the potato aphid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 9750-9754. Simmons A. T., Gurr G. M. 2005. Trichomes of Lycopersicon species and their hybrids: effects on pests and natural enemies. Agric. For. Entomol. 7: 265-276. Smith C. M

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Zhong-ying Bao, Xiao Ming, Xiao-dong Yuan and Shu-hong Duan

References 1. Huang YL. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House, 1990:246-253. 2. Peng WW. Epidemiology fifth edition. Beijing: People’s Health Publishing House, 2002:156-157. 3. Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Cholera. Lancet 2012;379(9835):2466-2476. 4. Jiang LJ, Wang R, Qiao Y, Wang BR. O1 group O139 and non-O1 Vibrio cholerae virulence comparative study. Adv Microbial Immunol 1995; 23:1-11. 5. Duan YQ, Yang B, Cui JD