. Mcguire W.L. 1987 Human breast cancer: Correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene Science 235 177 182
Tuszynski, J. (2012). caTools: Tools: Moving window statistics. Retrieved from https://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/caTools/index.html . Tuszynski J. 2012 caTools: Tools: Moving window statistics Retrieved from https://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/caTools/index.html
Wallace, M.L., & Rafols, I. (2014). Research portfolios in science policy: Moving from financial returns to societal benefits. Minerva, 2015
Xianlei Dong, Jian Xu, Ying Ding, Chenwei Zhang, Kunpeng Zhang and Min Song
Google Trends www.google.com/trends is a tool offered by Google for obtaining search-query data. It takes any user search query and returns a weekly or monthly normalized time series (the maximum number of data points in the time series equals 100) of the related trend on that search query. For example, Figure 1(a) and 1(b) show the weekly search popularity of “obesity” and the monthly search popularity of “14” in the “people & society” category on Google, respectively, for the period under consideration. The overall monthly search popularity on the topic
Ling Wei, Haiyun Xu, Zhenmeng Wang, Kun Dong, Chao Wang and Shu Fang
removed, the subnets will be independent from each other; and
Weak subnets and weak nodes: In the final weak tie network, all nodes are called weak nodes, and all subnets are called weak subnets.
The research ideas and main steps for the weak tie analysis on research topics detection are detailed below ( Figure 1 ).
Selection of data and keywords: In order to detect the LIS topics, articles in LIS are collected, and keywords are extracted from article titles and preprocessed by the text analysis tool Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA);
Generation and clustering of co
2 1 8 9
García-Pérez, M.A. (2009). A multidimensional extension to Hirsch’s h -index. Scientometrics, 81(3), 779–785. 10.1007/s11192-009-2290-1 García-Pérez M.A. 2009 A multidimensional extension to Hirsch’s h -index Scientometrics 81 3 779 785
Garfield, E. (1972). Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation — Journals can be ranked by frequency and impact of citations for science policy studies. Science, 178, 471–479. 10.1126/science.178.4060.471 Garfield E. 1972 Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation — Journals can be
of research and language.
During recent years, several valuable studies have addressed how Web of Science, and more recently Scopus, cover the research literature of various fields and countries. Nevertheless, a criteria-based approach representing research evaluation standards has been absent. With a few examples given in each category, these are the main types of approaches in earlier studies:
The products have been compared to each other with no external reference data, usually confirming that both are suitable tools for evaluation e.g. ( Archambault et al
that the list will be updated to reflect quality, impact, and disciplinary norms. Research outputs and publications will be analysed regularly, with the understanding that the OBRSS factor would not be entirely conclusive.
It should also be noted that the points system of the OBRSS is not intended to be used as a tool, not least the sole criterion, for research assessment. Since the OBRSS points system does not represent the impact and quality of all kinds of research output, it does not necessarily reflect individuals’ research performance, particularly for those
researchers affiliated with the same discipline.
Cluster analysis has shown a valuable tool for the analysis of intra-disciplinary diversity of publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities. A fuzzy cluster analysis based on a prior hard partitioning results in a maximum of information: the partitioning based on the k -medoids algorithm allows for straightforward identification of the publication patterns underlying the clustering result, while the fuzzy principle shows for every individual author the degree of belonging to each cluster. In
also ensuring access to such data by humanities and social science researchers through new technology-supported tools ( Figure 3 ).
Domains/areas of interests, resources, and technologies expressed in the project descriptions of Digging into Data Challenge Round 1, 2, and 3, 2009–2013. Source: Compiled based on the project descriptions retrieved from the website at https://dev.diggingintodata.org/awards .
A newly launched nationwide contest encouraging the use of data from Chronicling America’ s digital repository of historic US
Yaoyao Song, Torben Schubert, Huihui Liu and Guoliang Yang
opportunities in the field of science and technology. In the same year, the Chinese President Xiaoping Deng declared that China should consider science, technology and education as the primary tool to catch up with the developed countries at the National Work Symposium on Education and Science. In 1983, this new doctrine was reemphasized by Deng, and he announced that education should be oriented toward modernization, the world and the future.
Following this general guideline, the first step towards reorganizing the science system was taken in 1985. The central government
art ( Lu & Pan, 2011 ). Aiming for preserving and promoting the precious Dunhuang heritage using digital tools, the Digital Dunhuang project has been undertaken by Dunhuang Research Academy with the support of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation ( Wang et al., 2015 ; Zhou, 2011 ). The Mogao Cave Panorama DL is one of the first end-user facing products in the Digital Dunhuang project that makes digital images of Dunhuang heritage accessible online. It is thus critical to understand how it serves the end-users and how it can be further improved from the users