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Open access

Nikola Brzica

Abstract

In the 21st century, warfare has evolved into a challenge that many countries are ill prepared to face. In contrast to the warfare of yesterday, victory is not defined by defeating an opposing military force, but rather defeating their ability to pursue political objectives by violent, often unconventional, means. Increasingly, these unconventional means are based on asymmetries between the two opposing forces.

A plethora of definitions for the term ‘asymmetric conflict’ exist, but they can largely be summarized by a general idea that one side in a conflict, due to its own failings or its opponents’ strength, is unable to achieve its political aims through conventional (i.e. symmetric) military means. Because of this, the weaker side uses new ideas, weapons and tactics in a manner that is not expected, exploiting surprise to undermine the relative strength(s) of their opponent (Lele, 2014). The character of contemporary asymmetric threats can be analyzed through a framework of several key characteristics, which will be described in this paper. Understanding this framework, particularly in light of the horizontal transfer of technology, tactics, organization structure and procedures between emerging asymmetric threats may contribute to better understanding of such threats.

Open access

Mihai-Marcel Neag

References [1] MILITARY DOCTRINE PRECIS , Regional Training Centre Romania-United Kingdom, Army Brigade Course, Bucureşti, 1998, p. 2-2. [2] Ibidem , p. 2-2. Bibliography 1. S.M.G. - 103, Doctrina Armatei României, Bucureşti, 2012; 2. F.T.-1, Doctrina operaţiilor Forţelor Terestre, Bucureşti, 2007; 3. F.T.-3, Manualul de tactică generală a Forţelor Terestre, Bucureşti, 2013; 4. ATP-3.2.1, Allied Land Tactics, NATO Standardization Agency (NSA), 9 november 2009.

Open access

Astra Zviedre, Arnis Engelis, Mohit Kakar and Aigars Pētersons

Potential Role of Cytokines in Children with Acute Appendicitis and Acute Mesenteric Lymphadenitis

Although, AAP and AML have different etiological factors, clinical symptoms are very much similar but treatment tactics in both the disease differ a lot. In case of AML, treatment is more conservative and does not require hospitalization while in case of AAP immediate hospitalization and maybe further surgery can be mandatory. With the identification of group of cytokines serum inflammatory mediators IL-8, IL-10, IL-12[p70], IL-17, TNF-a and MCP-1, it is believed early and proper diagnosis of AAP in the near future. Research of cytokines-serum inflammatory mediators has opened new opportunities for an early detection and differentiation of these two diseases in children.

Open access

Silviu Nate and Aurelian Rațiu

Abstract

Information warfare has gained new valences, although some states have historical roots in developing subversive and manipulative tactics; the action pattern is supported today by the use of new information propagation vectors, access to new technologies, and a mix of themes with political, economic, military, cultural and social collective interest. The aim of the propaganda is that the aggressor demoralizes and minimizes the trust of citizens in domestic institutions and policies. Hypotheses and work themes are combined with false news, counterfeit media, capable of creating ambiguity. On such a media of open sources, non-kinetic threats and elements of the hybrid war manifest themselves in the information space and create the ambiguity much hoped to diminish the establishment that reflects the aggressor’s opposition. The study presents relevant cases and recommendations for members of the Euro-Atlantic community related to the management of Russian information actions.

Open access

Ionut Alin Cîrdei

Abstract

In the last years the focus of the military specialists changed from the asymmetrical threats to the hybrid threats, seen as one of the main challenge for the security in the 21st century. The increased attention paid to hybrid threats is due to the events that took place in Ukraine, Syria and other confrontation areas and which highlighted the vulnerability of the modern societies and modern armies toward this type of actions. The use of hybrid type tactics can ensure the achievement of the main objectives of an international actor, with a low effort, usually without using the force, and can deny to the target/victim the possibility to take any defensive actions. The hybrid warfare can represent the war of the 21st century, a new type of direct or indirect confrontation, with effects on short and medium term, impossible to be anticipated.

Open access

Samuel Keith Duncan

Abstract

Using a combined Huizingian-Bourdieu framework, this paper analyses the significance of sport’s transformation into a business and how the prevailing business structure that defines professional sport has influenced the ‘lived experience’ of those playing at sport’s elite level. Furthermore, this paper highlights how the actions of players, coaches and other participants serve to reinforce, legitimise and normalise the business characteristics of sport’s dominant business structure.

Importantly, this paper illuminates how the professionalization of sport corrupts the act of playing and indeed gives rise to play tactics, such as ‘sledging’, which both reflects the increased seriousness of sport and, in its very execution, further reinforces the dominant business structures of professional sport, all the while corrupting the essence of sport – play.

In doing so we are challenged to consider how society’s fields could be different in structure, and in the ‘lived experience’ within the field.

Open access

Mircea Fuciu and Luigi Dumitrescu

Abstract

The usage of online social networking sites has never been stronger for the individuals and for the companies. This paper is underlining the importance of using the online social networking (OSN) sites in the communication strategy of one’s company; it presents the concept and the evolution of this marketing tool. It points out the advantages and disadvantages of using such a platform in a marketing campaign. We are underlining the strengths and weaknesses of this tool, as well as the main tactics and actions that the company must use in order to achieve the desired / maximum result when using such a communication platform in its strategy. At the same time we are presenting several results of a quantitative marketing research about how the OSN sites influence the consumers and the buying behaviour.

Open access

Andrew S. Millard and Chae-Deug Yi

Abstract

Discourse on the Six Party Talks has focused solely on denuclearisation. Through the power struggles of the members and the refusal of the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea (DPRK) to return to negotiations, the Six Party Talks have been stalled since 2008. Due to current increased tensions and the use of brinkmanship tactics the Talks must be restarted, albeit under a reformed shape. This paper analyses the potential role of the EU in furthering the peace process in Northeast Asia. This paper suggests that the EU needs to be more assertive and the Talks should focus on building trust and cooperation, not on the DPRK’s nuclear program. With its impartiality, experience in integration and use of soft power, the EU can act as an effective mediator building trust.

Open access

Edgars Zarembo, Arnis Engelis and Aigars Petersons

Diagnosis and Management of Blunt Pancreatic Trauma in Children

There are still diagnostics problems and variety of opinions about tactics in the treatment of blunt pancreatic injurys. The methods of surgery treatments are more and more replacing the methods of endoscopy and conservative therapy. There is a remarkable diference in the tactic of treatment between adults and children because of the anatomical physiological reasons. Delayed diagnosis of this wounding is connected with heightened morbidity and mortality.

Handlebars injury is the most frequent mechanism of the trauma. The most determinant role in the diagnostics has active examination tactic and arsenal of visual diagnostics methods. Therapy approach must be individualized depending from the hemodynamic status, seriosity of injury, existence of associated injuries and the experience in the institution. After traumatic pseudocysts can be successfully drained in US control or endoscopic to stomach. Children with such injuries must be concentrated if possible in the specialized centers.

Open access

Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

Abstract

Science is becoming more challenging, not only for scientists, but also for editors and publishers. Faced with limited funding within an expanding economic crisis, competition between scientists is increasing. The struggle for professional survival is leading some to revert to dishonest tactics to get ahead of the pack and cheating or fraud may be involved. Confronted with these new realities, which have become more debatable within the public arena, mainly as a result of an increase in blogs and social media, editors and publishers are reinforcing current publishing platforms in a bid to reduce the risks and to fortify their journals against future submission- and fraud-related problems. Ultimately, this places greater scrutiny — and stress — on the authorship, leading to an increase in militarization. At some point — which certain hints already indicate — the criminalization of science will begin as publishers fail to curtail fraud.