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Martina Oder, Rok Fink, Klemen Bohinc and Karmen Godič Torkar

of bacteria isolated from drinking water to materials. J Basic Microbiol 2007;47:174-83. doi: 10.1002/jobm.200610224 18. Liu Y, Tay JH. Metabolic response of biofilm to shear stress in fixed-film culture. J Appl Microbiol 2001;90:337-42. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01244.x 19. Stoodley P, Lewandowski Z, Boyle JD, Lappin-Scott HM. Structural deformation of bacterial biofilms caused by short term fluctuations in flow velocity: an in-situ demonstration of biofilm viscoelasticity. Biotechnol Bioeng 1999;65:83-92. doi: 10.1002/(SICI

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M. Kmieć, B. Karpiński and M. Szkodo

REFERENCES 1. Brennen C.E., Cavitation in medicine. Interface Focus, 5 (2015). 2. Gogate P.R., Kabadi A.M., A review of applications of cavitation in biochemical engineering/biotechnology. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 44 (2009), 60-72. 3. Szkodo M., Estimation of cavitation erosion resistance of materials. Advances in Materials Science, 6 (2006), 43-48. 4. Rosenberg LD. Powerful ultrasonic fields, Nauka Moscow (1968), 18-45. 5. Peng C-h, Liu Z-y, Wei X-z. Failure analysis of a steel tube joint perforated by corrosion in a well

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Sang-Sub Lim, Jae-Chul Mun, Tae-Won Kim and Chung-Gil Kang

References Bethlehem Steel Corporation, 1972. Modern steels and their properties. 7th ed. Bethlehem, PA: Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Hall, E.O., 1951. Deformation and ageing of mild steel: III Discussion of results. Proceeding Physical Society (London), B64(9), pp.747-753. Horn, R.M. and Ritchie, R.O., 1978. Mechanisms of tempered martensite embrittlement in low alloy steels. Metallurgical Transactions A, 9(8), pp.1039-1053. Kim, T.W., Lim, S.S., Seok, H.H. and Kang, C.G., 2013. Concurrent

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K. Sołek and M. Dziarmagowski

References [1] M. Rywotycki, K. Miłkowska-Piszczek, L. Trębacz, Identification of the boundary conditions in the continuous casting of steel, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 57, 1, 385-393 (2012). [2] K. Miłkowska-Piszczek, M. Dziarmagowski, A. Buczek, J. Pióro, The methods of calculating the solidifying strand shell thickness in a continuous casting machine, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering 57, 2, 75-79 (2012). [3] K.P. Sołek, L. Trębacz, Thermo-mechanical Model of Steel Continuous Casting

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K. Miłkowska-Piszczek

60 , 1, 251-256 (2015). [7] A. Cwudziński, J. Jowsa, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 57 , 1, 297-301 (2012). [8] A. Burbelko, J. Falkus, W. Kapturkiewicz, K. Sołek, P. Drozdz, M. Wróbel, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 57 , 1, 379-384 (2012). [9] A. Cwudziński, Steel Research International 85 , 4, 623-631 (2014). [10] Z. Malinowski, M. Rywotycki, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 9 , 59-73 (2009). [11] A. Cwudziński, Archives of Metallurgy And Materials 56 , 1, 611-618 (2012). [12] J. Sengupta, B

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L. Bulkowski, U. Galisz, H. Kania, Z. Kudliński, J. Pieprzyca and J. Barański

Industrial Tests of Steel Filtering Process

The concerned paper presents results of wide scope of liquid steel filtering tests by means of ceramic filters, including laboratory, model and industrial testing in the conditions of conventional (ingot) and continuous steel casting. Multi- hole (sieve) ceramic filters made of mullite and corundum, of the structure adjusted to the type of conducted experiment were used for testing. Selection of ceramic material for filter construction accounted for the conditions of filter operations including: high temperature (liquid steel temperature), filtering duration determined by mass of the filtered steel, hydrodynamics of steel flow through filter holes an and wettablity of filter ceramics by non-metallic inclusions. In order to assess the effectiveness of liquid steel filtering in reference to unfiltered steel, the following criteria have been adopted:

- change in surface share of non-metallic inclusions,

- change in the quantity of non -metallic inclusions and dimensions thereof,

- change in total oxygen content (summary).

The obtained results of tests confirm high effectiveness of liquid steel filtering by means of ceramic filters and may constitute a basis for development of a new technology of steel refining by means of filtration.

Open access

Pavel Vlasak, Zdenek Chara and Jiri Konfrst

REFERENCES Campbell, C.S., Francisco, A.S., Liu, Z., 2004. Preliminary observations of a particle lift force in horizontal slurry flow. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 30, 199–216. Doron, P., Barnea, D., 1993. A three layer model for solid-liquid flow in horizontal pipes. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 19, 6, 1029–1043. Doron, P., Barnea, D., 1996. Flow pattern maps for solid-liquid flow in pipes. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 22, 2, 273–283. Durand, R., 1953. Concentration measuring instrument for hydraulic transportation installation. La Houille Blanche

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J. Jowsa, M. Bielnicki and A. Cwudziński

. Savolainen, ISIJ Int. 49 , 1661 (2009) [9] L.C. Hibbeler, R. Liu, B.G. Thomas, 7 th European Continuous Casting Conf., 1, Düsseldorf (2011) [10] K.E. Swartz, L.C. Hibbeler, B.P. Joyce, B.G. Thomas, in: K.D. Hickey, Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference, 1865, Indianapolis (2014) [11] M. Iguchi, J. Yoshida, T. Shimizu, Y. Mizuno, ISIJ Int. 40 , 685 (2000) [12] S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, Dover Publications, New York, 1981 [13] L.M. Milne-Thompson, The Macmillan Press Ltd., Theoretical

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Pavel Vlasák, Zdeněk Chára, Jan Krupička and Jiří Konfršt

. Freight Pipeline Society Symp., Madrid, 28 June-1 July 2011, pp. 147-154. Krupicka, J., Matousek, V., 2012. Gamma-ray-based method for density sensing in pipes - evaluation of measurement and data processing. In: Proc. 2nd IAHR Europe Congr., Munich (Germany), 27-30 June 2012. Lukerchenko, N., Chara, Z., Vlasak, P., 2006. 2D numerical model of particle-bed collision in fluid-particle flows over bed. J. Hydraulic Research, 44, 1, 70-78. Matousek, V., 2009a. Concentration profiles and solids transport above stationary

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B. Ali, S.H. Choi, S.J. Seo, D.Y. Maeng, C.G. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials (1999). [5] E. Hryha, L. Čajková, E. Dudrová, Study of reduction/oxidation processes in Cr-Mo prealloyed steels during sintering by continuous atmosphere monitoring, in: Proceedings of the European Congress & Exhibition in Powder Metallurgy (2008). [6] H. Karlsson, L. Nyborg, S. Berg, Powder Metall. 48 , 51-58 (2005). [7] H.M. Shin, K.H. Baik, J. Korean Powder Metall. Inst. 21 , 422-28 (2014). [8] A. Pineau, N. Kanari, I. Gaballah, Thermochim. Acta