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Jan Tumajer and Václav Treml

.11.017 [26] Decaulne A and Sæmundsson Þ, 2008. Dendrogeomorphology as a tool to unravel snow-avalanche activity: Preliminary results from the Fnjóskadalur test site, Northern Iceland. Norwegian Journal of Geography 62(2): 55–65, DOI 10.1080/00291950802094742. [27] Dorren LKA and Berger F, 2006. Stem breakage of trees and energy dissipation during rockfall impacts. Tree Physiology 26(1): 63–71, DOI 10.1093/treephys/26.1.63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/26.1.63 [28] Dubé S, Filion L and Hétu B, 2004. Tree

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Caroline W. Maina, Joseph K. Sang, Benedict M. Mutua and James M. Raude

degradation worldwide ( IAEA, 2014 ). According to ICOLD (2009) , 27% of land in Africa is degraded, out of which 65% of agricultural land is degraded due to erosion and/or chemical and physical damage. In addition, soil erosion is reported by Collins et al . (2001) as a serious environmental problem in many African countries. The severe soil erosion and degradation largely affect food security in Sub-Saharan Africa ( Dercon et al ., 2012 ). This has been attributed to many developing countries in Africa having experienced expansion of agriculture on to marginal land

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Sebastian Kreutzer, Loïc Martin, Guillaume Guérin, Chantal Tribolo, Pierre Selva and Norbert Mercier

dosimeter, especially in the field. Taking advantage of these physical properties, our group has used α-Al 2 O 3 :C for developing a comprehensive dosimetric system easily usable in the field (e.g., archaeological sites). We use α-Al 2 O 3 :C chips produced by Landauer Inc . as detectors. Since its development, this material has been extensively studied (e.g., Whitley and McKeever, 2000 ; Akselrod et al ., 1998 ; Erfurt et al ., 2000 ) and it is nowadays also used as detector for personal dosimetry (cf. Yukihara and McKeever, 2011 ). Chips were favoured over

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Niccolo’ Baldassini, Roberto Mazzei, Luca Maria Foresi, Federica Riforgiato and Gianfranco Salvatorini

Berggren, W.A. 1985. Oligocene-Miocene bios­tratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and isotopic stratigraphy of the western North Atlantic. Geology, 13, 257-261. Miller, K.G., Feigenson, M.D., Wright, J.D. and Clement. B.M. 1991a. Miocene isotope reference section Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 608: an evaluation of isotope and biostratigraphic resolution. Paleoceanography, 6, 33-52. Miller, K.G. and Kent, D.V. 1987. Testing Cenozoic eustatic changes: the critical role of stratigraphic resolution. Cush­man Foundation for Foraminiferal Research

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Katarzyna Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata Wistuba, Ireneusz Malik, Marek Krąpiec and Bartłomiej Szypuła

) tool was used to make use of the best method of interpolation. RMSE is the most frequently used parameter determining degree of accuracy. It expresses the dispersion of the distribution of the frequency of variances between the original (real) data and the interpolated data. In statistics and probability theory, RMSE is a widely used measure of conformity between a set of estimates and the actual values ( Li, 1988 ). The calculated RMSE values were similar for the methods tested: from 0.49 (Topo to Raster) to 0.57 (Spline). Although the lowest RMSE value was obtained

Open access

Marcin Błaszczyk, Helena Hercman, Jacek Pawlak, Michał Gąsiorowski, Šárka Matoušková, Marta Aninowska, Ditta Kicińska and Andrzej Tyc

goal for this work is the improved estimation of studied flowstone chronologies. Oxygen isotopic stratigraphy is tested as an alternative dating method. The second goal is a regional paleoenvironmental interpretation of the obtained records (including δ 18 O and δ 13 C records) and the results of the petrographic observations. 2 Materials Głęboka Cave is located in southern Poland in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland and is the largest known cave formed of karst from a natural reserve (Mt. Zborów; Fig. 1 ). Its length is 190 m, and the height difference between

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Sergio Piraino and Fidel Alejandro Roig

influence of both hydrological variables upon the ring development, we focused on the common time period from preceding year April to current year March, when cambium activity ends ( Giantomasi et al., 2012 ). Correlations were computed with the software DENDROCLIM2002 and tests for significance were determined through the bootstrap method ( Guiot, 1991 ; Biondi and Waikul, 2004 ). Possible differences in radial growth-environmental variability relation as function of tree spatial distribution were analyzed by the means of ANOVA computed on the r/s coefficients ( r

Open access

Piotr Moska, Grzegorz Adamiec, Zdzisław Jary, Andrzej Bluszcz, Grzegorz Poręba, Natalia Piotrowska, Marcin Krawczyk and Jacek Skurzyński

where the loess cover is preserved and its thickness rarely exceeds a few meters. In south-western Poland, several independent loess cover forms can be seen. Each form can be characterized by different sediment thickness, stratigraphy or physical properties. Such a large variety of loess deposits depending on their east-west geographical location is explained by the influence of continental climate in the eastern part of Poland and more oceanic in the western part ( Cegła, 1972 ; Jersak, 1973 ; Jary, 2007 ). Investigations showing the distribution of loess cover in

Open access

Marta Wardas-Lasoń and Aldona Garbacz-Klempka

can be avoided); – stratum — spatially defined entity of homogenous content, distinguished by stratigraphic context, physical features and cultural content of illegible, primary character. Thus in this article, when describing the anthropogenic origin of the substrata of the Main Market Square in Kra-kow, the terms ‘deposit’, ‘strata’ and ‘stratum’ will be used — when we have in mind their successive formation as a consequence of their self-accumulation, or intention-al accumulation of matter (including waste) as a consequnce of the functioning of the town

Open access

Małgorzata Gutry-Korycka, Dariusz Woronko and Jarosław Suchożebrski

REFERENCES Acreman M.C., Sinclair C.D., 1986, Classification of drainage basins according to their physical characteristics; an application for flood frequency analysis in Scotland, Journal of Hydrology , 84, 365-380. Bartniak A., Jokiel P., 2008, Odpływy maksymalne i indeksy powodziowości rzeki półkuli północnej [Maximum flows and river flood indexes on the North Hemisphere], Przegląd Geograficzny , 80, 3, 361-383. Bayliss A.C., Reed D.W., 2001, The use of historical data in flood frequency estimation . Report to MAFF. Centre for Ecology and