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Development of a Capillary Electrophoresis Method for the Separation of Fluoroquinolone Derivatives in Acidic Background Electrolyte

Abstract

Introduction: Antibacterial quinolones class comprises a series of synthetic antibacterial agents, following the model of nalidixic acid. Because of their common 6-fl uorosubtituent on the quinolone ring, fluroquinolones are the most potent analogues with extended spectrum of activity and great pharmacokinetic properties. The applicability of capillary zone electrophoresis for the separation of fl uoroquinolones in acidic background electrolyte has been studied, our aim being the development of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the simultaneous separation of six fl uoroquinolones and also to optimize the analytical conditions. The six studied fl uoroquinolones were ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin.

Material and methods: Preliminary, we studied the electrophoretic behavior of six fluoroquinolones in an acidic pH, which highlighted the possibility of developing a separation method in this area of pH. Electrophoretic parameters infl uencing separation performance were studied and optimized.

Results: A fast and reliable method has been developed, using a background electrolyte containing 100 mM phosphoric acid and the following conditions: applied voltage: + 25 kV, temperature: 20°C, injection pressure 30 mbar - 5 sec, UV detection at 280 nm, capillary: 60 cm (52 cm effective length) x 50 μm, analyte concentration: 167 μg/ml. The separation of the studied fl uoroquinolones was achieved in less than 8 minutes.

Conclusions: Capillary zone electrophoresis using an acidic background electrolyte proved to be an efficient tool in the separation of fluoroquinolones from different generations. Also the proposed methods are particular environment-friendly replacement and improvement of a common high performance liquid chromatography determination with rapid analysis time without using any organic solvents.

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Effects of teicoplanin on cell number of cultured cell lines

REFERENCES Bibler MR, Peter TF, Hagler DN, Bode RB, Staneck JL, Thamlikitkul V. (1987). Clinical evaluation of efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of teicoplanin for serious Gram-positive infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31 : 207–212. Eggleston M, Ofosu J. (1988). Teicoplanin, a new agent for gram positive bacterial infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 9 : 209–211. Glupezynski Y, Lagast H, Auwera PV, Thys JP, Crokaert F, Yourassowsky E, Meunier-Carpentier F, Klastersky J, Kains JP, Serruys-Schoutens E. (1986). Clinical

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Formulation And Performance Evaluation Of Betahistine Dihydrochloride Microspheres As Sustained Release Systems

ABSTRACT

Betahistine dihydrochloride is a histamine-like drug widely used in relieving the symptoms associated with Ménière’s syndrome. Pharmacokinetic studies of betahistine have demonstrated that it has a short plasma half-life of 3-4 hours. In such cases frequent administration of the drug is required in order to keep plasma concentration within the therapeutic range. However, this may lead to noncompliance and aggravate patients’ comfort. An advanced approach for achieving sustained release of drugs is their incorporation in microparticulate carriers. AIM: To design a sustained release microsphere formulation of betahistine providing reduced dose frequency and lower risk of side effects occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Betahistine-loaded chitosan microspheres were obtained via W/O emulsion solvent evaporation technique and were characterized for particle size, drug loading and entrapment efficiency. Drug release into phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 was performed and dissolution profiles of the formulations were obtained. To study the mechanism of drug release from the microspheres the dissolution data was fitted to various mathematic models. RESULTS: Betahistine-loaded microspheres were produced with a high drug loading and entrapment efficiency. The microcarriers were spherical in shape with mean particle size of 3.82 μm to 7.69 μm. Betahistine release studies from the microspheres showed similar and slightly increasing dissolution profiles. The drug release proceeded in a controlled manner following Fickian diffusion. CONCLUSION: The obtained results suggest that betahistine-loaded chitosan microspheres prepared by solvent evaporation method are capable of sustained release of drugs and therefore can be used as drug delivery systems in the treatment of Ménière’s syndrome.

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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Methadone Syrup

References 1. Anggard E, Nilsson MI, Holmstrand J, Gunne LM. Pharmacokinetics of methadone during maintenance therapy: pulse labeling with deuterated methadone in the steady state. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1979;16:53-7. PMID: 499301 2. Corkery JM, Schifano F, Ghodse AH, Oyefeso A. The effects of methadone and its role in fatalities. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;19:565-76. doi: 10.1002/hup.630 3. Hendra TJ, Gerrish SP, Forrest AR. Fatal methadone overdose. BMJ 1996;313:481-2. doi: 10.1136/ bmj.315.7099.55a

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New UHPLC Method for Cannabidiol Determination in Hard Capsules

). 4. Pisanti S, Malfitano AM, Ciaglia E et al. Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. Pharmacol Ther. 2017;175:133-150. 5. Lucas CJ, Galettis P, Schneider J et al. The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2018;84:2477-2482. 6. Jalali SAM, Johnson WE. The Development of Cannabidiol as a Psychiatric Therapeutic: a Review of Its Antipsychotic Efficacy and Possible Underlying Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal. 2013;1:113-147. 7

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Frequencies of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 Gene in Selected Populations of the Western Balkans

- etics is associated with a polymorphism of the SLCO1B1 gene (encoding OATP1B1). Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005; 59(5): 602-604. 4. Niemi M, Backman JT, Kajosaari LI, Leathart JB, Neuvonen M, Daly AK, et al. Polymorphic organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 is a major determinant of repaglinide pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 77(6): 468-478. 5. Pasanen MK, Fredrikson H, Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M. Different effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the phar-macokinetics of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Clin Phar-macol Ther. 2007; 82

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Orthostatic Hypotension and Therapy with an Ace Inhibitor in Hypertensive Patients

References 1. Fatima S. et al., A review on importance of ACE inhibitors in clinical practice. Med. Res. Chron., 2014, 1 (1), 102-109. 2. Mancia G. et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens. 2013 Jul; 31(7): 1281-357. 3. Wiseman LR, McTavish D. Trandolapril. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic

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DOLUTEGRAVIR efficacy in HIV infected patients

.L., Hadzic, T. & Kashuba, A.D. (2013). Clinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and drug-interaction profile of the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir. Clin Pharmacokinet. 52(11), 981-994 9. FDA approves new drug to treat HIV infection. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/ NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ ucm364744.html 10. Min, S., Song, I. & Borland, J. et al. (2010). Pharmacokinetics and safety of S/GSK1349572, a next-generation HIV integrase inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 54, 254

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Investigation of in vitro effects of ethephon and chlorpyrifos, either alone or in combination, on rat intestinal muscle contraction

Activity in Adult Rats: An in Vitro and in Vivo Comparison. Fundam App Toxicol   38 : 148-157. Cochran RC. (2002). Appraisal of Risks from Nonoccupational Exposure to Chlorpyrifos. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol   35 : 105-121. Cook TJ and Shenoy SS. (2003). Intestinal permeability of chlorpyrifos using the single-pass intestinal perfusion method in the rat. Toxicology   184 : 125-133. El-Masri HA, Mumtaz MM and Yushak ML. (2004). Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to

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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Rheumatic Diseases

1 Introduction The main goal of treating rheumatic diseases is to achieve rapid and effective suppression of inflammation. More and more drugs have been proven to be able to achieve these goals nowadays. The current practice is to give a recommended dose of drugs to our patients according to the body weight, risk factors and tolerance, etc. However, all our patients are different individuals who have different pharmacokinetics, and this difference in pharmacokinetics can affect the true drug concentration that is working inside them. This may create

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