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Katarzyna Wojtkowska, Nina Andersz and Joanna Czarnota-Bojarska
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Since the mid-19th century until the 1930s, the Czech physical education and the scout movements formed a platform for the propagation of a specific somatology and health science discourse connected with the issues of morality, national awareness and political views. They strived to create an integral Czech personality subject to the imperative of the bourgeois values and norms. The stress was on the set of rules, diligence, commitment to the benefit of the nation, moderation, temperance, and obedience, while laziness and conspicuous revelry were, in this context, condemned. Disobedience, immorality and improper use of powers were perceived as a real threat to the national community and later to the so-called First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938). Hence, activities of both the physical education organisations and the Scout Movement, became a form of national defence against harmful influences. As a result of their effort to impact the society as a whole, these activities became a mobilization tool which promoted both physical and moral norms: the cultivation of the body became a moral duty for all members of the nation. The disapproval, based on political and generational reasons, towards the bourgeois morality hegemony and later, of the state paternalism (for instance by the non-organised scout-tramps), resulted in attempts to condemn all those who refused the social dictate and the state’s control.
The theme presented is aimed at attempting to perceive the fundamental qualities of the man’s personality (body, soul and spirit) from the philosophical, anthropological and theological point of view and, at the same time, to establish the value reflections towards its (current and universal) existential orientations. Namely, today's experience shows us that tendencies with notable prevailing of corporality over the other constitutive properties of the human being are constantly getting stronger. The body cult is vigorously stressed: body building and fitness clubs, as well as special gyms and wellness facilities (saunas, hydro massage baths, tepidariums are advertised, which should satisfy the increased corporal‐hedonistic and corporal‐aesthetic motives. This disturbing of the essential and human structure established by God demands the return to the original settings of Christian trichotomy (not serving the body but serving of the body), whereby a balanced and harmonious relationship between the body, the soul, and the spirit is developed by equally bearing in mind all three areas on which all three "gymnastics" are tuned and effectively performed, which leads to overall development and fulfilment of a human being.
Perception of Self-Efficacy and Professional Burnout in General Education Teachers
Purpose. The objective of the study was to determine to what degree general perception of self-efficacy protects general education teachers in Poland (educational stages II-IV) against professional burnout, and whether teachers of various subjects display any differences in this respect. Basic procedures. The study was carried out between April and June 2005 on a sample of 404 teachers (women n = 310, men n = 94). The diagnosis of the burnout syndrome was based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The perception of coping competences in teachers facing professional stress was measured with the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) (Polish version) by R. Schwarzer, M. Jerusalem and Z. Juczyński. Main findings. Teachers are characterized by a high level of self-efficacy perception. Conclusions. As a factor preventing development of the three-dimensional burnout syndrome, perception of self-efficacy protects teachers against a loss of professional satisfaction, increasing emotional exhaustion and a tendency to depersonalize their pupils. Teachers of various subjects perceive the preventive role of self-efficacy differently.
Piotr Werner and Bartłomiej Iwańczak
The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of services and revenues, and an increase in individuals’ free time allowance. ICT penetrates all branches of the economy as a set of general purpose technologies. New information and communication technologies ease everyday life, serve as tools to help people in extreme situations, e.g. accidents, illnesses or natural disasters, and are also the pillars of contemporary entertainment media. The usefulness of ICT has been stressed and loudly disseminated to a large extent by the media. On the other hand, these new technologies sensitize society in quite new ways to the well-known natural hazards that people have encountered in the past.
Jan Volín, Kristýna Poesová and Radek Skarnitzl
The perennial question as to how perceived otherness in speech projects into listener assessment of one’s personality has been systematically investigated within the field of foreign accentedness, vocal communication of affective states and vocal stereotyping. In the present study, we aimed at exploring non-native listeners’ capacity to respond to differences in natural and modified native speech, particularly whether the manipulation of temporal structure in both stressed and unstressed syllables gives rise to any changes in the perception of the speaker’s personality. The respondents’ intuitive judgements were captured in the domain of the ‘nervousness category’ taken from the five-factor model of personality. Our results indicate an effect of temporal modifications on the listeners’ judgements. Analysis of variance for repeated measures confirmed a highly significant shift of personality evaluations towards the undesired traits (e.g., nervousness, anxiety, querulousness). Several interesting interactions with the semantic contents of the utterances and with the intrinsic qualities of the speakers’ voices were also found. We argue that the effects of accented speech go beyond conscious willingness to accept “otherness” and suggest a method for studying them.
Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Nichara Ruangdaraganon, Rawiwan Roongpraiwan, Tasnawat Sombuntham, Pat Rojmahamongkol and Rungtip Prasertchai
Background: More than 90% of cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are idiopathic and are multi-factorial inheritant in etiology. Although parental perceptions of ASDs etiologies including genetics have been investigated well in western countries, there is no study regarding Asian parental perspectives on the genetic etiology of ASDs. Objectives: Examine what Thai parents perceived to be the etiology of ASDs with particular focus on the role of genetics, and analyze the correlation between demographics of parents and the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Methods: Children diagnosed with an ASD at Ramathibodi Hospital were recruited, and 328 questionnaires were mailed to their parents between February 1 and March 31, 2008. Based on 252 answers received, the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Among 252 parents, 44.0% cited genetics, 52% cited other prenatal and perinatal factors such as stress and chemical exposure during pregnancy, 33% cited postnatal factors such as child rearing, child’s viewing of television, and playing computer game as etiologies of ASDs. Parents’ education, positive family history of ASDs, and positive family history of speech delay were all significantly associated with the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Conclusions: Less than half of Thai parents cited genetics as an etiology of ASDs. This finding alerts medical professionals to spend more time and effort to educate and counsel parents.
Arthur Leared’s Morocco and the Moors (1876) and Budgett Meakin’s Life in Morocco and Glimpses Beyond (1905) are two less-examined imperial travel texts on precolonial Morocco. These two travelogues are British (Irish and English, respectively) – a fact that casts on them from the beginning the special taste of this genre which is a British specialty par excellence. Coming from the same political and cultural backdrops, Leared and Meakin peregrinated into Morocco in a precolonial time when it was still perceived as the “Lands of the Moors”. These two travellers responded to moments of interactions with the Moors as a culturally, socially and religiously different other. Both these Victorian travellers were aware of the fact of empire as their travelogues function as fodder to energize the discursive grandiloquence of empire. They stress an ethnocentric view in depicting Moroccans and their culture, and they communicate their observations through an interpretative framework, or in Foucauldian terminology, through the “discourses” provided by their culture. This paper undertakes the examination of these two travellers’ perception of otherness; the approach is to question and bring to the fore the rhetorical and discursive strategies as well as modes of representation Leared and Meakin deploy in their encounters with the Moors in Pre-Protectorate Morocco.
Andrea Kosáros, Katona Ildikó and Gyula Lakatos
Sustainability Pedagogy in Practice: An Example from Health Education
At the UN World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, the period between 2005 and 2015 was declared to be the decade of sustainability. Therefore, it is important to see the implementation of sustainability pedagogy come to the fore in every country. Putting this into practice may lead to hardships for headmasters and teachers in schools. This process requires changes in behavior and approaches, besides, the development of certain students' skills have to be considered that the institutions have not perceived as their duty so far. To implement the idea of sustainability in education, in every country from elementary to higher education, properly trained and prepared teachers are needed. Post-graduate teacher training, international interchange of experience have to be stressed. Furthermore, to understand the content of sustainability and put it into everyday practice in schools, the activities have to be fact-based, with clear directions and have easily available teacher aids. The article demonstrates method how to implement projects related to healthy nutrition.