stressful work characteristics. J Adv Nurs 2003;43:197-205. Foxall M, Zimmerman L, Standley R, Captain BB. A comparison of frequency and source of nursing job stress perceived by intensive care, hospice and medical-surgical nurses. J Adv Nurs 1990;15:577-84. Milutinović D, Grujić N, Jocić N. Identifikacija i analiza stresogenih faktora na radnom mestu medicinskih sestara - komparativna studija četiri klinička odeljenja [Identification and analysis of stress factors at nursing workplace. A comparative study of four
Dragana Milutinović, Boris Golubović, Nina Brkić and Bela Prokeš
The objectives of this review paper are (I) the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II) the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III) the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of civilization and improvement in health-related physical fitness.
Based on previous studies, only dynamic Sun Salutations of yoga exercises (Suryanamaskar) are moderate-intensity physical activity, and therefore must be performed at least 5 days a week in 30 min duration or 150 min per week meet the recommendation. Hatha yoga meets the recommendations regarding types of exercise, because it includes poses improving muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and balance. Dynamic sequences of Sun Salutation can be regarded as aerobic exercises. Regular hatha yoga training may be an intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of diseases of civilization. Yoga exercises were found to produce reductions in diastolic blood pressure; to improve cardiorespiratory system and metabolic parameters; to correct posture; to reduce back pain; to prevent obesity; to lower blood glucose level; to be beneficial for stress and depression; to relieve perceived pain; and to improve functional fitness and perceived quality of life. Hatha yoga also improves physical fitness, especially in regards to health-related fitness.
In the context of the recommendation and reported benefits, hatha yoga is the health-related physical activity.
, E. M., Fisher, R. H., (1997). Perceived benefit and mental health after three types of disaster. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 65, 733-739. Norris, F., Kaniasty, K. (1996). Received and perceived social support in times of stress: A test of the social support deterioration deterrence model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 71, 498-511. Park, C. L., Cohen, L. H., Murch, R. L. (1996). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth. Journal of Personality , 64, 71
Katarzyna Wojtkowska, Nina Andersz and Joanna Czarnota-Bojarska
. Bradley, J.,& Cartwright, S. (2002). Social support, job stress, health and job satisfaction among nurses in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Stress Management, 9, 163 - 182. Casper, W.J., Martin, J.A., Buffardi, L.C., & Edwins, C. (2002). Work family conflict, perceived organizational support, and organizational commitment among employed mothers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 99 - 108. Czarnota-Bojarska, J. (2010). Dopasowanie człowiek - organizacja i tożsamość organizacyjna. [Person-Organization Fit and
Andrea Kosáros, Katona Ildikó and Gyula Lakatos
Sustainability Pedagogy in Practice: An Example from Health Education
At the UN World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, the period between 2005 and 2015 was declared to be the decade of sustainability. Therefore, it is important to see the implementation of sustainability pedagogy come to the fore in every country. Putting this into practice may lead to hardships for headmasters and teachers in schools. This process requires changes in behavior and approaches, besides, the development of certain students' skills have to be considered that the institutions have not perceived as their duty so far. To implement the idea of sustainability in education, in every country from elementary to higher education, properly trained and prepared teachers are needed. Post-graduate teacher training, international interchange of experience have to be stressed. Furthermore, to understand the content of sustainability and put it into everyday practice in schools, the activities have to be fact-based, with clear directions and have easily available teacher aids. The article demonstrates method how to implement projects related to healthy nutrition.
The theme presented is aimed at attempting to perceive the fundamental qualities of the man’s personality (body, soul and spirit) from the philosophical, anthropological and theological point of view and, at the same time, to establish the value reflections towards its (current and universal) existential orientations. Namely, today's experience shows us that tendencies with notable prevailing of corporality over the other constitutive properties of the human being are constantly getting stronger. The body cult is vigorously stressed: body building and fitness clubs, as well as special gyms and wellness facilities (saunas, hydro massage baths, tepidariums are advertised, which should satisfy the increased corporal‐hedonistic and corporal‐aesthetic motives. This disturbing of the essential and human structure established by God demands the return to the original settings of Christian trichotomy (not serving the body but serving of the body), whereby a balanced and harmonious relationship between the body, the soul, and the spirit is developed by equally bearing in mind all three areas on which all three "gymnastics" are tuned and effectively performed, which leads to overall development and fulfilment of a human being.
Since the mid-19th century until the 1930s, the Czech physical education and the scout movements formed a platform for the propagation of a specific somatology and health science discourse connected with the issues of morality, national awareness and political views. They strived to create an integral Czech personality subject to the imperative of the bourgeois values and norms. The stress was on the set of rules, diligence, commitment to the benefit of the nation, moderation, temperance, and obedience, while laziness and conspicuous revelry were, in this context, condemned. Disobedience, immorality and improper use of powers were perceived as a real threat to the national community and later to the so-called First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938). Hence, activities of both the physical education organisations and the Scout Movement, became a form of national defence against harmful influences. As a result of their effort to impact the society as a whole, these activities became a mobilization tool which promoted both physical and moral norms: the cultivation of the body became a moral duty for all members of the nation. The disapproval, based on political and generational reasons, towards the bourgeois morality hegemony and later, of the state paternalism (for instance by the non-organised scout-tramps), resulted in attempts to condemn all those who refused the social dictate and the state’s control.
Perception of Self-Efficacy and Professional Burnout in General Education Teachers
Purpose. The objective of the study was to determine to what degree general perception of self-efficacy protects general education teachers in Poland (educational stages II-IV) against professional burnout, and whether teachers of various subjects display any differences in this respect. Basic procedures. The study was carried out between April and June 2005 on a sample of 404 teachers (women n = 310, men n = 94). The diagnosis of the burnout syndrome was based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The perception of coping competences in teachers facing professional stress was measured with the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) (Polish version) by R. Schwarzer, M. Jerusalem and Z. Juczyński. Main findings. Teachers are characterized by a high level of self-efficacy perception. Conclusions. As a factor preventing development of the three-dimensional burnout syndrome, perception of self-efficacy protects teachers against a loss of professional satisfaction, increasing emotional exhaustion and a tendency to depersonalize their pupils. Teachers of various subjects perceive the preventive role of self-efficacy differently.
Piotr Werner and Bartłomiej Iwańczak
The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of services and revenues, and an increase in individuals’ free time allowance. ICT penetrates all branches of the economy as a set of general purpose technologies. New information and communication technologies ease everyday life, serve as tools to help people in extreme situations, e.g. accidents, illnesses or natural disasters, and are also the pillars of contemporary entertainment media. The usefulness of ICT has been stressed and loudly disseminated to a large extent by the media. On the other hand, these new technologies sensitize society in quite new ways to the well-known natural hazards that people have encountered in the past.
Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Nichara Ruangdaraganon, Rawiwan Roongpraiwan, Tasnawat Sombuntham, Pat Rojmahamongkol and Rungtip Prasertchai
Background: More than 90% of cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are idiopathic and are multi-factorial inheritant in etiology. Although parental perceptions of ASDs etiologies including genetics have been investigated well in western countries, there is no study regarding Asian parental perspectives on the genetic etiology of ASDs. Objectives: Examine what Thai parents perceived to be the etiology of ASDs with particular focus on the role of genetics, and analyze the correlation between demographics of parents and the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Methods: Children diagnosed with an ASD at Ramathibodi Hospital were recruited, and 328 questionnaires were mailed to their parents between February 1 and March 31, 2008. Based on 252 answers received, the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Among 252 parents, 44.0% cited genetics, 52% cited other prenatal and perinatal factors such as stress and chemical exposure during pregnancy, 33% cited postnatal factors such as child rearing, child’s viewing of television, and playing computer game as etiologies of ASDs. Parents’ education, positive family history of ASDs, and positive family history of speech delay were all significantly associated with the perception of genetics as an etiology of ASDs. Conclusions: Less than half of Thai parents cited genetics as an etiology of ASDs. This finding alerts medical professionals to spend more time and effort to educate and counsel parents.