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This article uses Charles S. Peirce’s concept of icon and Judith Butler’s idea of genealogy of gender to study levels of fictionality in the Old English poem Beowulf. It shows that Wealhtheow, the principal female character in the epic, operates as a diegetic reader in the poem. Her speeches, in which she addresses her husband King Hrothgar and Beowulf contain implicit references to the Lay of Finn, which has been sung by Hrothgar’s minstrel at the feast celebrating Beowulf’s victory. It is argued here that Wealhtheow represents herself as an icon of peace-weaving, as she casts herself as a figuration of Hildeburh, the female protagonist of the Lay of Finn. Hildeburh is the sister of Hnæf, the leader of the Danes, and is given by her brother to Finn the Frisian in a marriage alliance. In her role as a peace-weaver, the queen is to weave peace between tribes by giving birth to heirs of the crown. After the courtly minster’s performance of the Lay, Wealhtheow warns her husband against establishing political alliances with the foreigner Beowulf at the expense of his intratribal obligation to his cousin Hrothulf, who is to become king after Hrothgar’s death.
Piotr Kittel, Jerzy Sikora and Piotr Wroniecki
. PWN, Warszawa. REIMER P.J., BARD E., BAYLISS A., BECK J.W., BLACKWELL P.G., BRONK RAMSEY C., GROOTES P.M., GUILDERSON T.P., HAFLIDASON H., HAJDAS I., HATT C., HEATON T.J., HOFFMANN D.L., HOGG A.G., HUGHEN K.A., KAISER K.F., KROMER B., MANNING S.W., NIU M., REIMER R.W., RICHARDS D.A., SCOTT E.M., SOUTHON J.R., STAFF R.A., TURNEY C.S.M. and van der PLICHT J., 2013, IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0-50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon, 55: 1869–1887. SIKORA J., 2007, Polska Centralna we wczesnym średniowieczu w świetle badań
Janusz Maciaszek, Damian Skrypnik, Marzena Ratajczak, Rafał Stemplewski, Wiesław Osiński, Paweł Bogdański, Edyta Mądry, Jarosław Walkowiak and Joanna Karolkiewicz
. Relationships between body mass index and well-being in young Australian women Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 24 10 1360 1369 Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wendy_Brown3/publication/12235183_Relationship_between_body_mass_index_and_well-being_in_young_Australian_women/links/53d213600cf228d363e902f9.pdf 26. Kääriä S., Laaksonen M., Rahkonen O., Lahelma E., Leino-Arjas P., Risk factors of chronic neck pain: a prospective study among middle-aged employees. Eur J Pain , 2012, 16 (6), 911–920, 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2011.00065.x
Alexander Kunz, Dorthe Pflanz, Tobias Weniger, Brigitte Urban, Frank Krüger and Yue-Gau Chen
.05.019  Arnold LJ, Roberts RG, Galbraith RF and DeLong SB, 2009. A revised burial dose estimation procedure for optical dating of young and modern-age sediments. Quaternary Geochronology 4: 306–325, DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2009.02.017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2009.02.017  Auclair M, Lamothe M and Huot S, 2003. Measurement of anomalous fading for feldspar IRSL using SAR. Radiation Measurements 37: 487–492, DOI 10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00018-0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00018-0  Bailey RM and