Cities are growing both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative development of a city can be identified with the spatial expansion and changes in the function of certain areas. The city's development, therefore, requires the reconstruction of the spatial layout, but also needs certain capital expenditures, as exemplified by industrial-technology parks (ITPs). ITPs are a combination of the infrastructure function and performance which enable the exchange of information between scientific organizations and entrepreneurs. They are, therefore, a pro-development component of the urban development strategy. The aim of the study is to identify and quantify selected costs and benefits, as well as estimate the effectiveness of establishing certain parks from the point of view of local government units.
Industry parks and technology parks are diverse entities. Their general characteristics and types, based on a review of domestic and foreign literature, are presented in the first part of the work justifying the study. The second part introduces the industrial-technology parks which are present in Poland. In the third part of the study, the specificity of assessing the effectiveness of an industrial-technology park is described. Finally, the fourth part includes an analysis of investing in selected industrial-technology parks; the analysis consists of three phases: the identification of industrial and technological parks, the verification of the industrial-technology park with the legal and practical definition, and cost-benefit analysis. According to the Polish Agency of Information and Foreign Investment (PAIiIZ), industrial-technology parks focus primarily on filling the space with commercially efficient companies using modern technologies, attracting investment and creating jobs. All of these factors are taken into account in the analysis. The analysis is carried out according to the methodology of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of investment projects.
Despite the diversity and dynamics of the structural features of the parks, the analysis confirms that the investment of public funds in industrial and technological parks is generally efficient in terms of socio-economic development.
Between April 2007 and April 2008, 40 systematic waterbird counts were conducted on the Drava River between Lake Maribor and the Melje Dam (length 8.5 km, area 155 ha) to determine the specific composition, abundance and seasonal dynamics of bird occurrence. Between October and May, counts were conducted every week, whereas between June and September they were carried out once every two weeks. In total, 26,803 individuals of 30 species were counted. The number of waterbirds and diversity of species were the highest from late December to late February, when more than 1,000 individuals were regularly present in the area. Waterbirds were distributed along the river unequally, with the highest number of birds present yearround in the city centre and in the first counting sector of Lake Maribor. The Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Mute Swan Cygnus olor were recorded during every count, while occurrence frequency was greater than 50% in another 10 species. Dominant species in terms of percentage composition were Mallard, Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Coot Fulica atra, Mute Swan, Pochard Aythya ferina and Tufted Duck Ay. fuligula. Mute Swan and Mallard were the only breeding waterbirds in the study area. Both the total number of waterbirds and the highest daily total in the first two counting sectors were greater between October and March 1992/93 than in our study. The decline in numbers was the greatest for Mallard, Pochard and Tufted Duck, while an increase was noted in Mute Swan and Yellow-legged / Caspian Gull Larus michahellis / cachinnans. The total number of waterbirds and the number of some species in the study area were significantly higher than expected solely based on its length compared to the length of the lowland Drava in Slovenia (125.7 km). The study area is conservationally important for Pochard, Tufted Duck and Black-headed Gull
The analysis of changes in landscape use and the related significance of some natural factors is examined in this paper, using three municipal cadastral areas in Moravia, Czech Republic. The relationships between changes in the use of the rural landscape and natural conditions were analyzed with the use of GIS tools and methods of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The CCA results showed a correlation between the selected natural factors and landscape changes, with the most significant factors being those of slope and altitude. The CCA models exhibited varying reliability in accounting for the extent of landscape changes related to topographical diversity of the territories. Natural conditions were more influential in periods with lower change dynamics and at the same time in areas with higher topographic heterogeneity. Although the results of the statistical analyses confirmed the significance of natural factors, only a part of land use changes could be explained by their influence. Socio-economic factors are apparently the main forces affecting landscape character and change
Katarzyna Pioš, Karolina Skoczylas and Teresa BrzeziñSka-Wójcik
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