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Michaela Strapáčová and Vít Hloušek

–29). Similarly, Hampshire (2013) sums up the situation of the nation-states. The numerous common features shared by a rather large number of rich liberal democracies lead him to conclude that the intractable nature of immigration policy is a reflection of the contradictory imperative of the state. Furthermore, he suggests that normative as well as practical reasons of the legally protected principles of migration and asylum, as well as the successfully communicated business needs of a labor force, account for not translating negative public opinion on immigration into an

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Ihsan Yilmaz, Greg Barton and James Barry

your prayers would not be accepted [by God] because there is no other way to be a Muslim… This party is an army of Jihad. Are you a Muslim? Then you should be a soldier in this army” ( Gümüşçü and Sert 2009 , 956). In Erbakan’s view, “elections are the counting of Muslims in Turkey” ( Yildiz 2003 , 193). His party’s semi-official daily Milli Gazete regularly ran headlines like this one from 4 October 1973 onward: “The clash of beliefs, not parties in the election” ( Yildiz 2003 , fn. 19). The National Outlook Party (NOP) was shut down after the 1971 military

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Thomas Halper

ground that bigamy was no more a religious practice than was human sacrifice; Davis v . Beason 133 U.S. 333 (1890). upheld a state statute requiring voters to swear an oath that they were not polygamists or members of organizations that promoted polygamy on the ground that polygamy was not a religious practice but instead one that “offend[s] the common sense of mankind”; Id . at 342. Hamilton v . Regents 293 U.S. 245 (1934). upheld a state law requiring male students enrolled in public universities to take military courses on the ground that “every citizen owes