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Lukasz Kaczmarek, Maja Stanko-Kaczmarek and Stephan Dombrowski

Adaptation and Validation of the Steen Happiness Index into Polish

Authentic happiness is a construct comprising 3 factors: pleasure, engagement, and meaning (Seligman, Parks, & Steen, 2005). Three studies involving altogether 464 participants adapted and validated the authentic happiness measure Steen Happiness Index (SHI; Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005) into Polish. In Study 1 the Polish version of the scale was developed and its convergence with the original SHI was assessed using bilingual response method, r = .98, p < .001. In Study 2 cluster analysis confirmed the theoretical profiles of happiness, testing the proposed 3-factor structure of the scale, χ2 (116) = 180.62, GFI = .95, CFI=.97, SRMR = .04, RMSEA = .04, RMSEA 90% CI [.25 - .45]. Test-retest reliability (Study 3) yielded satisfactory results, rtt = .87, p < .01. This is the first study providing empirical support for the structural validity of the authentic happiness construct. It also shows the cross-cultural generality of the construct. We discuss some practical applications of the scale.

Open access

Michael Sofer

Abstract

The outer island of Kadavu is representative of the Fijian periphery. This paper deals with its physical characteristics, infrastructural conditions, and village economic activities with the aim of understanding the changes it has gone through in recent years. A combination of micro-geographic studies in two villages and a meso-geographical analysis show that the pattern of development found in Kadavu in the early 1980s has not changed much. The current pattern of cash crop production and trade is almost entirely dependent on the kava beverage crop, infrastructure is underdeveloped, the island suffers from the peripheral penalty phenomenon, and government initiatives aimed at changing the trend are very limited. However, the current form of non-capitalist production and its derived benefit has forced villagers into a strategy of adaptation which might actually be preferable for them under the current conditions of peripheralization.

Open access

Eugenia Foca

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of primary school adaptation. The innovative art technologies described by the author seem to create an optimal environment to make the process of adaptation n primary classes easier. This research highlights the benefits of art pedagogical technologies. It also suggests a framework for some art pedagogical activities. The author offers some methodological suggestions for teachers, who could help primary school learners to adapt to the new school environment.

Open access

Krzysztof Roman Brom, Krzysztof Szopa, Tomasz Krzykawski, Tomasz Brachaniec and Mariusz Andrzej Salamon

Abstract

Shelly fauna was exposed to increased pressure exerted by shell-crushing durophagous predators during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution that was initiated in the Triassic. As a result of evolutionary ‘arms race’, prey animals such as bivalves, developed many adaptations to reduce predation pressure (e.g. they changed lifestyle and shell morphology in order to increase their mechanical strength). For instance, it was suggested that Pectinidae had acquired the ability to actively swim to avoid predator attack during the early Mesozoic. However, pectinids are also know to have a specific shell microstructure that may effectively protect them against predators. For instance, we highlight that the shells of some recent pectinid species (e.g. Pecten maximus) that display cross-lamellar structures in the middle part playing a significant role in the energy dissipation, improve the mechanical strength. In contrast, the outer layers of these bivalves are highly porous, which allow them to swim more efficiently by reducing the shell weight. Pectinids are thus perfect examples of animals optimising their skeletons for several functions. We suggest that such an optimisation of their skeletons for multiple functions likely occurred as a results of increased predation pressure during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

Open access

Liliya Sushentseva

Abstract

The problem of the preparedness formation of future teachers of vocational training to the professional adaptation under conditions of globalization processes in society is considered. The analysis of scientific and educational literature devoted to the study of occupational adaptation and preparedness formation of specialists to it is carried out. Different approaches to the interpretation of the term “adaptation” of the various sciences positions as in in our country and foreign scientific literature are analyzed. It is determined that the professional adaptation is the process of joining a young vocational education teacher in a new social environment in the system of interpersonal relations of particular staff, during which it is taking place the standards of thinking and behavior production in terms of values system and behavioral norms of the staff; readiness for occupational adaptation as one of the essential parameters of professional and social maturity of a person is the particular bound, which characterizes the internal readiness of a man to the qualitative changes.

Open access

Bilal Sert and Sebahattin Ziyanak

Abstract

Immigration studies still investigate immigrants’ offspring and later generations’ socioeconomic upward and downward motilities. When it comes to early Turkish immigrants, there is an unfilled “missing link” from a sociological point of view. This study explores early Turkish immigrants’ adaptation experiences in the United Sates through qualitative triangulation and the methods of observation. This article utilizes “Straight-line theory”, “decline theory”, and “segmented assimilation to expound early Turkish immigrants’ adaptation experiences in the United States. Drawing on archival documents next to meetings with immigrants’ off springs, this study finds evidence that immigration occurred during the second wave to the United States from Europe, among Turks from Anatolia and Rumelia and they successfully adapted their new social environment. Rather, the findings provide novel evidence on the role of religious view and their social interaction. When seeking early Turks’ socio educational background, we discover that highly educated individuals including religious leaders, professors, and businessmen migrated to Peabody, MA.

Open access

Dana Percec and Andreea Şerban

Abstract

In Romania, Shakespeare played an important role in the construction of Romania’s cultural identity and in the reshaping of political awareness during the communist dictatorship. In recent years, the Bard’s work has been translated into a contemporary, accessible Romanian language, with theatrical or musical adaptations targeted at a public whose tastes are shaped by popular culture. The authors discuss, from this perspective, two recent adaptations: The Taming of the Shrew (2005), acclimatized to contemporary Romanian realities (names, locations and folk music), and Romeo and Juliet (2009) that relocates the tragedy in the musical genre. The choice of two musical genres popular with the most widely spread segments of the public - the conservative, but less educated middle-aged group of non-theatre-goers and the youth - indicates an attempt, still new for the Romanian cultural market, to accommodate Shakespeare to the interests of two different communities of consumers, so far absent from this country’s high culture circuit.

Open access

Rafał Kawa and Ewa Pisula

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare exploratory behaviours in children with autism and typically developing preschool children and the course of their adaptation to novelty. A series of five repeated trials was conducted, during which children were allowed to freely explore the experimental room. The results revealed differences between study groups in the overall rate of exploratory activity, which was lower in children with autism. Patterns of time characteristics of exploratory activity showed both similarities and differences between the groups. In both groups, the rate of simple exploratory behaviours (i.e. looking at an object, touching the object, manipulating one object) decreased with time, while the levels of diversive exploration (i.e. touching the wall or floor) increased. Children with autism engaged in less complex object manipulation than their peers. Similarly, their adaptation and habituation to a novel environment proceeded in a different way in the low stimulation zone than in the high stimulation zone. In the low and medium stimulation zones, the rate of exploration decreased with time, while in the high stimulation zone it remained relatively constant. In typically developing children, habituation occurred in all stimulation zones. These results suggest the presence of some differences between the patterns of adaptation to novelty in the two groups, which emerge in a stimulation-rich environment. Due to the limitations of the study, in particular the small number of subjects, the present paper should be treated as a preliminary report.

Open access

Marek Zatoń and Dariusz Dąbrowski

Abstract

Purpose. Different forms of cycling require the use of different abilities and skills. The aim of this paper was to attempt to identify differences in the directions and dynamics of the body’s adaption to training in road (ROAD) and mountain (MTB) cyclists. Methods. Research was performed on a group of competitive road (n = 25) and mountain (n = 25) cyclists, mean age 16.96 ± 0.78 years presenting maximal oxygen uptake values of 4.45 ± 0.47 L/min-1. Body composition and physiological and biochemical parameters at rest, during exercise, and during restitution (cool down) were determined. Exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer in the form of a progressive load test. Analysis of the results included cluster analysis and basic statistical methods. Results. Cluster analysis indicated that the amount of work performed during the progressive load test was a universal indicator of physical fitness. The level of base excess (BE) in the 3rd min of restitution had a large influence on the remaining parameters in both groups. Training adaptation in MTB were manifested through increased values of maximum heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, oxygen partial pressure, and lactate and BE levels in the blood, as well as a reduction in blood pH and body mass. Conversely, in ROAD, adaptation to effort was evidenced by increased maximum values of oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, cardiac output and the rate of carbon dioxide elimination as well as an increase in hematocrit count and lean body mass. Conclusions. Adaptation to training by road cyclists is primarily evident in the development of aerobic capacity. Mountain biking induces adaptive changes in the development of anaerobic capacity by increasing the buffer capacity of the blood and muscles, as well as the development of the oxygen transportation system.

Open access

Beata Konopska and Jacek Pasławski

Abstract

Different approaches to the adaptation of foreign geographical atlases, making an effort of classification, against a background of the intensive activity of Polish publishers in the scope of adaptation of these atlases during the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty first century have been discussed in this article. Moreover the usefulness and correctness of the adapted publications as well as the fundamental problems connected with the use of Polish geographical names have been discussed from the point of view of a Polish user; also the problems related to the layout, range of content and scope of symbolism expected by a Polish user have been discussed.