Search Results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 131 items for :

  • Plant Science x
Clear All
Open access

Eligijus Laurinavičius and Daiva Rimkuvienė

Abstract

Production economics forms a very important part of an enormous range of economic theory. Agricultural production is no exception. When evaluating the competitiveness of the multifunctional agriculture, it is necessary to use the measure of efficiency instead of productivity. The conception of the efficiency is explained and the methods for measurement are provided. The authors discuss the methods of Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), Free Disposal Hull (FDH) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that are particularly useful for multi-criterial evaluation of multifunctional processes. Those methods assign an efficiency score to each Decision Making Unit (DMU) based on how well it transforms a given set of inputs into outputs. Most studies have only focused on application of DEA method for assesment of the efficiency of agriculture farms. There is still a need on applications for sectors. This paper provides an examination of the applicability of DEA method to agriculture sectors efficiency measurement. By applying mathematical models, which are based on the DEA, the efficiency of agriculture in each EU country was evaluated.

Open access

Małgorzata Kasprzak and Zbigniew Rzedzicki

A study on the possibility of application of grasspea wholemeal for the modification of the chemical composition, physical properties and sensory features of traditional white bread was performed. It was demonstrated that an increase in the share of the pulse material from 1.5% to 12% caused an increase in bread yield (130.7-136.3%). An improvement was also noted in the baking loss, from 15.01% to 9.11%, and in the total baking loss - from 16.56 to 12.23%. Increase in the level of the pulse component caused a decrease in bread volume from 100 g of fl our (from 505 to 359 cm3), and a decrease in bread crumb porosity (from 81 to 61%). Admixture of the pulse component caused only a slight decrease in the point score of the bread as compared to traditional wheat bread. The replacement of wheat fl our with grasspea wholemeal had a highly favourable effect on the chemical composition of the bread; the experimental bread produced with 12% of grasspea was characterised by protein content of 14.51% d.m. and total dietary fibre content at the level of 8.75% d.m.

Open access

Agnieszka Makowska, Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz and Wiktor Obuchowski

The effect of brewer’s spent grain addition (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w) on selected properties of extrudates produced from corn grits with various moisture contents (12.5%, 13.5%, 14.5% and 15.5%) was analysed in this study. It was shown that an addition of brewer’s spent grain (BSG) to extrudates reduces expansion and increases density of the product. The changes are dependent on raw material moisture content. A higher addition of brewer’s spent grain is reflected in higher values of Water Absorption Index (WAI). At a raw material moisture content exceeding 12.5% there is no correlation between the content of brewer’s spent grain and WAI. Water Solubility Index (WSI) values decrease with an increasing content of brewer’s spent grain in the sample, irrespective of moisture content in the extruded mixture. An addition of BSG to extrudates makes it possible to obtain a product with a high content of dietary fibre, particularly cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. Extrudates produced from a raw material with a moisture content of 12.5% received the highest scores in sensory evaluation. At such a moisture content of the raw material an acceptable product with a 15% brewer’s spent grain content was obtained. Higher additions of BSG resulted in a reduced expansion, increased density and lower desirability of the product due to the specific aroma and after-taste of BSG.

Open access

Önder Yildiz and Birgül Bulut

Abstract

Tulumba dessert is widely preferred in Turkey; however, it cannot be consumed by celiac patients because it includes gluten. The diversity of gluten-free products should be expanded so that celiac patients may meet their daily needs regularly. In this study, corn flour (CF) / potato starch (PS) blend to be used in the gluten-free tulumba dessert formulation was optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Increasing ratio of PS in the CF-PS led to a decrease in hardness of the dessert and to an increase in expansion, viscosity, adhesiveness, yield of dessert both with and without syrup (P<0.05). When considering the properties used in optimization process, the optimum formulation was found to be as 201.52 g water and 0.18 g CMC and 100 g blend of CF-PS at the rates of 59:41. In sensory evaluation test, appearance, symmetry, crispness and aftertaste properties of the gluten-free dessert prepared from this formulation were very close to control sample (P>0.05), additionally these desserts had a much higher sensory score compared to the control sample in terms of the overall quality and pore structure (P<0.05).

Open access

Elena Peñas, Cristina Martinez-Villaluenga, Concepción Vidal-Casero, Henryk Zieliński and Juana Frias

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rye flour extraction rate on the protein amino acids content and protein quality indexes (chemical score, CS, protein efficiency ratio, PER) of traditional rye bread and ginger cake and to compare them with conventional wheat bread. Rye flour with extraction rates of 1000 g/kg and 920 g/kg (F-1000 and F-920, respectively), were used. Amino acid content was determined by HPLC and protein quality indexes were calculated. The results showed that contents of non-essential amino acids (NEAA) were not much affected by flour extraction rate in rye bread and ginger cake since only Asp and Ser were higher in F-1000 rye bread and Arg and Pro in F-1000 ginger cake. In regard to essential amino acids (EAA), only Thr and Val content was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in F-1000 rye bread, on dry weight basis. In addition, rye bread formulated with whole rye flour exhibited a higher content of total EAA than wheat bread (P≤0.05). Regarding protein quality indexes, CS values were quite low in breads and ginger cakes, being Lys the limiting amino acid. However, estimated PER values were similar among wheat and rye breads, and slightly lower for ginger cakes. Hence, whole rye flour should be considered as an approach to improve the nutritional quality of traditional rye-based products.

Open access

H. Avni Kirmaci

Abstract

In the present study, the influences of wild-type lactic acid bacteria including Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1B4, Lactococcus garvieae IMAU 50157, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 19434, Enterococcus durans IMAU 60200 and Enterococcus faecalis KLDSO.034 on the composition and free fatty acid contents of Urfa cheeses were evaluated throughout the ripening period. Three different combinations of the strains were employed in the manufacture of cheeses from pasteurised milk. These are: cheese A (strains 1B4+ATCC 19434+IMAU 50157), cheese B (strains 1B4+IMAU 60200+ATCC 1934) and cheese C (strains ATCC 19434+1B4+IMAU 50157+IMAU 60200+KLDSO.0341). The control cheese (cheese D) was produced from raw ewe’s milk without starter culture. The basic composition of ripened cheese samples was not significantly affected by wild type strains. C cheese had a higher level of lipolysis than the other cheeses at all stages of ripening (p<0.05). Sensory evaluation of the cheese samples revealed that control cheese had significantly higher aroma and flavour scores than the other cheeses.

Open access

Pauls Zeltiņš, Juris Katrevičs, Arnis Gailis, Tiit Maaten, Jurģis Jansons and Āris Jansons

Abstract

Stem cracks are damaging for timber quality and can reduce the monetary value of a tree both directly and indirectly: serving as gateway for fungal infections. Aim of the study was to assess the influence of tree dimensions and seed origin on the frequency of stem crack for Norway spruce. The study was carried out in two contiguous provenance trials (material from 12 countries), established in 1972 and 1975 in Western Latvia. Stem cracking was assessed using five-score scale. Most of the affected trees (90%) had very light or light damage. There was no relation of diameter at breast height to incidence of stem cracks. Analysis revealed a significant provenance effect on occurrence of stem cracks. Russian provenances tended to have lower risk of stem cracking and relatively narrow variation within the region, while Baltic and Ukrainian origins had wide range of stem cracking, having best as well as worst provenances in terms of cracking. Overall it is possible to select fast growing provenances with relatively low incidence of stem cracks.

Open access

Ahmed Ezzat, Amin Ammar, Zoltán Szabó, József Nyéki and Imre J. Holb

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on 12 quality parameters of apricot fruit in treatments of cold storage (1°C for 7, 14 and 21 days) and shelf-life (4 and 8 days at 25°C after a 21-day cold storage treatment). Fruit quality parameters included 6 physico-chemical characteristics (weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, acidity, total soluble solids/acidity ratio and juice pH) and 6 sensory properties (skin and flesh colour, texture, taste, visual appearance and overall acceptability). Among physico-chemical characteristics, applications of 0.2 mmol/L methyl jasmonate and 2 mmol/L salicylic acid significantly reduced fruit weight loss, fruit softening and juice pH and maintained soluble solid content and acidity over the whole storage period. Among sensory properties, all parameters were generally increased by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid treatments compared to water-treated control and the water-treated fruits showed the lowest scores below the acceptability limit except for skin colour. In conclusion, our results suggest using methyl jasmonate and/or salicylic acid to enhance and prolong the storability of apricot fruits during both cold storage and shelf-life period.

Open access

A.A. Eslami, S.A. Khodaparast, S. Mousanejad and F. Padasht Dehkaei

Summary

Sclerotium rolfsii is a soil borne pathogen responsible for root and stem rot on a wide range of crops. This study was conducted to identify the virulence of different S. rolfsii isolates on a susceptible local peanut germplasm and determine the resistance of 20 peanut genotypes to the most virulent isolate and also the relationship between virulence and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs). Seventy eight isolates of this fungus from 10 host plants and six known MCGs were used in the experiment. The experiment was done in greenhouse conditions (25±5°C) using a complete randomized block design with three replications. Pots containing sterile soil (pH=6.7) were inoculated with barley seeds colonized by each isolate separately before being seeded with the peanut germplasm. Disease severity was assessed by scoring the wilting, yellowing or death of plants, mycelia or sclerotia production on the soil surface or on plant stem, stem area affected (%) and stem lesion length, at the stage of plant maturity. Also, shoot wet weight and plant height were recorded at this stage. According to the results of the pathogenicity tests, all of the isolates were virulent on the susceptible peanut germplasm and the virulence diff ered signifi cantly between the isolates (P≤0.01). There was no relationship between the virulence of the five groups of isolates identified in the present study and the MCGs. The peanut genotype 140, which was better than the others based on seed size, plant height and the canopy size, was also the most resistant one

Open access

Mai A. Mohamed, Dalia A. Zahran, Gehan M.A. Kassem, M.M.T. Emara and N.M. Mansour

Abstract

Detection of MRPM in emulsion type products is a challenge facing meat industry. Where, most of meat products processors in Egypt illegally replace beef meat partially or totally with MRPM in meat products to reduce products cost. Commercial and experimentally produced emulsion type sausage (traditional Egyptian luncheon) formulated with 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90% MRPM instead of the meat mass and cooked to different core temperature (70, 80 and 90°C) were examined for technological properties, ash, bones, cartilage and calcium (Ca) content, in addition to histological sections stained with H&E and Trichrome blue. Results indicated that all market samples showed unacceptable texture and binding scores with high ash, collagen, cartilage, bone and Ca content. Histological section showed the presence of skin and cartilage. Addition of 10% MRPM to luncheon formulation could not be detected at different cooking temperatures. While the use of 30% or more MRPM to luncheon formulation, significantly changed technological properties and chemical composition of the product. Thermal treatments of luncheon sausages changed their chemical composition as well as induced structural changes in bone and cartilage content.