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Leidy M. Chacua, Germán Ayala, Hernán Rojas and Ana C. Agudelo

Abstract

The rheological behaviour of vinasses derived from sugar cane was studied as a function of time (0 and 600 s), soluble solids content (44 and 60 °Brix), temperature (10 and 50°C), and shear rate (0.33 and 1.0 s−1). The results indicated that vinasses were time-independent at 25°C, where shear stress values ranged between 0.01 and 0.08 Pa. Flow curves showed a shear-thinning rheological behaviour in vinasses with a flow behaviour index between 0.69 and 0.89, for temperature between 10 and 20°C. With increasing temperature, the flow behaviour index was modified, reaching values close to 1.0. The Arrhenius model described well the thermal activation of shear stress and the consistency coefficient as a function of temperature. Activation energy from the Arrhenius model ranged between 31 and 45 kJ mol−1. Finally, the consistency coefficient as a function of the soluble solids content and temperature was well fitted using an exponential model (R2 = 0.951), showing that the soluble solids content and temperature have an opposite effect on consistency coefficient values.

Open access

J. Timm

Abstract

Numerous investigations and data on the development of smoke condensate and nicotine in German cigarettes, the changes in the market shares, the length of cigarettes smoked in laboratories and by the average consumer, and the per capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany were utilised in calculating the average delivery of smoke condensate and nicotine and for estimating the per capita consumption of moist and dry cigarette smoke condensate and the nicotine contained in it. In the period from 1961 to 1975 (for dry condensate figures are available only for 1966 to 1975) all these figures display a downward trend. Expressed in terms of the totaI population the reduction in moist condensate is about 31 %, nicotine about 40 % and dry condensate (for the shorter period 1966 to 1975) about 22 %. The percentages of smokers in the German population and among foreign workers, the development and age structure of the resident population and of the percentage of foreign workers were utilised to also ascertain from the above results the development of the condensate and nicotine consumption of the potentiaI and actual smokers. The result is again a reduction of consumption of approx. 36 % for moist condensate, of approx. 45 % for nicotine and 26 % for dry condensate (in the shorter period 1966 to 1975) a smoker. If these figures are converted to the equivalent of cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961 the consumption of 21 cigarettes a smoker established for 1975 corresponds to a mere 10 cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961. The actuaI daily consumption at that time, however, was about 15 cigarettes a smoker.

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W. Schulz

Abstract

The author investigated the effect upon the length of cigarette butts left by the smokers, brought about by the increase in tobacco tax of the first of September, 1972, in the Federal Republic of Germany. From the year 1959 to the month of August of 1972, the lengths of the butts of filter cigarettes have been found to continuously increase from 22.1 mm to 33.8 mm. This trend has been interrupted by price augmentations by about 20 % resulting from the said tax increase. On the average, since September 1972, the length of the butts of filter cigarettes has decreased by 0.6 mm and the length of the butts of plain cigarettes slightly by 0.2 mm

Open access

R. Kittler and S. Darula

Technol., 45, 4, 504-512. [28] Lambert, J. H. (1760), Photometria sive de mensura et gradibus luminis, colorum et umbrae (Photomery for measuring and grading light, colour and shades). Augsburg: Detlefsen. (German translation by E. Anding: Lamberts Fotometrie. Leipzig: Klett Publ., 1892. English translation by D. L. DiLaura: Photometry, or on the measure and gradation of light, colors and shade. New York: Publ. IES Amer., 2001). [29] Lambert, J. H. (1773), Merkwürdige Eigenschaften der Bahn des Lichte durch die Luft und überhaupt durch verschiedene

Open access

W Wittekindt

References 1. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service: Extension-Research Toblcco Pathology Program: 1984 Summary Report; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1984. 2. Wittekindt, W.: Current West German regulations on maximum pesticide residues in tobacco products; Tobacco-Journal International 1978, No. 4, 222-229. 3. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service: 1984 Tobacco Information; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 111

Open access

M Ball, O Päpke and A Lis

. Lis und K. Scheunert: PCDD/PCDF in Whole Blood Samples of Unexposed Persons; Chemosphere 19 (1989) 941—948. 13. Beck, H., K. Eckart, W. Mathar und R. Witt-kowski: PCDD and PCDF Body Burden from Food Intake in the Federal Republic of Germany; Chemosphere 18 (1989) 417-424. 14. Fürst, P., C. Fürst und W Groebel: Levels of PCDD's and PCDF's in Food-Stuffs from the Federal Republic of Germany; vorgetragen auf Dio-xin 1989, Toronto, Canada. 15. Ryan, J. J., L. G. Panopio und D. Lewis: Bleaching

Open access

Steffen Beck-Broichsitter, Heiner Fleige and Rainer Horn

.C., Searle P.L., and Daly B.K., 1987. Methods for chemical analysis of soils. New Zealand Soil Bureau Science Report 80. Beck-Broichsitter S., Fleige H., and Horn R., 2016. Schrump-frissgefährdung einer temporären mineralischen Oberflächenabdeckung. Deponietechnik, Januar 27-28, Hamburg, Germany. Beck Broichsitter S., Fleige H., and Horn R., 2017. Waste capping systems processes and consequences for the longterm impermeability. In: Soils within Cities (Eds M. Levin, H.J. Kim, J.L. Morel, W. Burghardt, P. Charzynski, R.K. Shaw). Catena Soil Sciences

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Remigiusz Duszyński, Angelika Duszyńska and Stefan Cantré

dredged materials in combination with geosynthetics in the German DredgDikes research dike facility , Journal Engineering Structures and Technologies, 2013, Vol. 5, Issue 3. [4] G rosse A.-K. et al., The application of disintegration tests for cohesive organic soils , Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 2014, 23(1), 1–14. [5] K okusho T. et al., Soil investigation of fly ash deposits improved by heavy compaction method , Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 2012, 6, 738–746. [6] S aathoff F. et

Open access

J Hahn and J Schaub

References 1. Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Gesetz über den Ver-kehr mit Lebensmitteln, Tabakerzeugnissen, kosme-tischen Mitteln und sonstigen Bedarfsgegenständen [Federal Republic of Germany: Law on the commer-cial use of foods, tobacco products, cosmetics and consumer goods]; 15. August 1974, Bundesgesetz-blatt, BGBl I. 2. European Commission: Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law