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Manuela Svoboda

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyse any potential similarities between the Croatian and German language and present them adopting a contrastive approach with the intent of simplifying the learning process in regards to the German syntactic structure for Croatian German as foreign language students. While consulting articles and books on the theories and methods of foreign language teaching, attention is usually drawn to differences between the mother tongue and the foreign language, especially concerning false friends etc. The same applies to textbooks, workbooks and how teachers behave in class. Thus, it is common practice to deal with the differences between the foreign language and the mother tongue but less with similarities. This is unfortunate considering that this would likely aid in acquiring certain grammatical and syntactic structures of the foreign language. In the author's opinion, similarities are as, if not more, important than differences. Therefore, in this article the existence of similarities between the Croatian and German language will be examined closer with a main focus on the segment of sentence types. Special attention is drawn to subordinate clauses as they play an important role when speaking and/or translating sentences from Croatian to German and vice versa. In order to present and further clarify this matter, subordinate clauses in both the German and Croatian language are defined, clarified and listed to gain an oversight and to present possible similarities between the two. In addition, the method to identify subordinate clauses in a sentence is explained as well as what they express, which conjunctions are being used for each type of subordinate clause in both languages and where the similarities and/or differences between the two languages lie.

Open access

Annegret Frindte and Johanna Mierendorff

Abstract

In German there is a long tradition of institutionalized daycare center-based early education. These institutions are concerned with Bildung, Erziehung und Betreuung - the education and care of children up to six years of age. Education and childrearing as well as care are all important but separate processes in German early childhood settings. Looking back, this theoretical division has a very long tradition. However, the energized public, political and professional discussions about the PISA results at the beginning of the 21st century led to Bildung and ECEC settings becoming increasingly important. Taking into account this complex and difficult historical development it is interesting to have a critical look at the dominant programmatic frames that characterize the German ECEC system nowadays: Bildung and quality of early education. The former double motif of education (Bildung und Erziehung) on the one hand and care (Betreuung) on the other hand remains an important aspect of German ECEC practices. Nevertheless, in the political arena and professional discourses Erziehung and Betreuung have been pushed into the background, to remain in symbolic form. Bildung and quality of early education seem to be in the spotlight. We will show how those programmatic frames have taken shape and are manifested in early childhood programs and projects.

Open access

Rūta Eidukevičienė

Summary

The paper aims to analyze the attitudes to German language in the Lithuanian public discourse. Texts written on this topic and chosen for the analysis appeared in two news portals – the national news portal delfi.lt and the regional news portal kaunodiena.lt. The database covers the period from 1 January 2011 to 1 March 2017; it consists of 82 articles from both news portals. For studying the image of German, the present study applies the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis taking into account different argumentation strategies for learning or not learning German as a foreign language as well as main topical priorities. The general attitudes towards countries can serve as an important foundation for motivation to language learning, so the analysis starts with the discussion of the specifics attributed to Germany and German-speaking countries (effectiveness governing the world, sympathy, economic success, and reliability). The analysis of the selected texts confirms that the image of Germany in Lithuania is quite positive: Germany, especially on delfi.lt, is presented as a target country for qualified Lithuanian experts, as an economically stable country having a large degree of political and cultural influence in the world. Regarding the status of German, the analyzed texts reveal a more ambiguous picture: on the one hand, it is stated that German is not popular in Lithuania, on the other hand it is emphasized that the popularity of the German language is increasing. The argumentation scheme for learning German consists of several argumentation lines: German is represented as a commodity in such domains as a professional career in Germany, in dealing with bilateral business relations, and to some extent in building a professional career in one’s home country and upholding cultural relations.

Open access

Ágnes T. Balla

Abstract

The central aim of my research is to investigate the third language learning processes of L1 Hungarian high-school learners learning L2 English and L3 German. More specifically, I aim at revealing to what extent Hungarian learners rely on their knowledge of their L1 and L2 as well as on the learning strategies they have developed while learning their L2.

Open access

Paula Trzaskawka

Abstract

The article deals with the comparison of key terminology in the field of copyright in the Polish, English, Japanese and German languages. The research material consists of copyright acts binding in Poland, Great Britain, the United States of America, Japan and Germany. The terminology has been compared in order to reveal similarities and differences in the meaning. Firstly, statutory terms from the Polish, English (British and American), German and Japanese acts will be presented and discussed. Also, a list of functional equivalents (Polish, English, German and Japanese) will be presented. The task was to search for functional equivalents, and if there is partial equivalence or no equivalence, an equivalent was provided according to techniques of providing equivalents for non-equivalent terms (c.f. Kłos, Matulewska, Nowak-Korcz 2007). They were made in such a way that equivalents will correspond with the reality of the laws in the above mentioned languages. The terms have been extracted with the usage of AntConc (corpus linguistics software). The method of analysis of comparable texts has been applied as well as the one based on three categories of equivalence by Šarčević (1997): “near equivalence”, “partial equivalence” and “non-equivalence”. Special attention has been paid to system-bound terminology existing in those five legal systems. To sum up, it should be borne in mind that the copyright law has been unified almost world-wide. As a result many countries have adopted similar or almost identical principles in this respect. Therefore, there is a significant convergence of meanings of analysed copyright terms with only slight differences resulting from deeply ingrained local and national legal traditions.

Open access

Ágnes T. Balla

Abstract

The central aim of my research is to investigate the third language learning processes of L1 Hungarian high-school learners learning L2 English and L3 German. More specifically, I aim at revealing to what extent Hungarian learners rely on their knowledge of their L1 and L2 as well as on the learning strategies they have developed while learning their L2.

Open access

Azra Zaimović and Almira Arnaut Berilo

Abstract

The integration of global equity markets has been a well-studied topic in the last few decades, particularly after stock market crashes. Most studies have focused on developed markets such as the US, Western Europe and Japan. The findings were that the degree of international co-movements among stock prices has substantially increased in the post-crash regime. In this paper we research the co-movements of German and Bosnian stock markets during and after the recent economic and financial crisis.

International market integration means that assets of equal risk provide the same expected returns across integrated markets. This means fewer opportunities for risk diversification if the markets are integrated. It is also believed that stock market indices of integrated markets move together over the long run with the possibility of short-run divergence. There is considerable academic research on the benefits of international diversification. Investors who buy stocks in domestic as well in foreign markets seek to reduce risk through international diversification. The risk reduction takes place if the various markets are not perfectly correlated. The increasing correlation among markets during and after the crises has restricted the scope for international diversification.

International stock market linkages are the subject of extensive research due to rapid capital flows between countries because of financial deregulation, lower transaction and information costs, and the potential benefits from international diversification. Most stock markets in the world tend to move together, in the same direction, implying positive correlation. In and after crises they tend to move together even more strongly. Thus, this paper aims to research if there are any diversification opportunities by spreading out investments across developed and underdeveloped capital markets.

This research attempts to examine the scope of international diversification between German and Bosnian equity markets during the 6-year period from 2006 to 2011. We test the hypothesis of whether there are any risk diversification possibilities by spreading out the investments between German and Bosnian equity markets. In order to determine the mean-variance efficiency of portfolios we use the method of convex (quadratic and linear) programming. The hypothesis is tested with the Markowitz portfolio optimization method using our own software.

The results of this research might enhance the efficiency of portfolio management for both types of capital market under analysis, and prove especially useful for institutional investors such as investment funds.

Open access

Marek Zinecker and Zdeňka Konečná

Abstract

This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to map German language proficiency among students at Czech universities of business and management. The results of this empirical survey can be summarised as follows. First, the ability of students at Czech universities of business and management to communicate in German is poor, and exceeds the general German language proficiency of the Czech population only to an insignificant extent. Second, the school environment (the opportunity to learn the language, compulsory subject, language study motivation) has a decisive influence on the respondents’ ability to communicate in German. Third, nearly three-quarters of the respondents perceive German as a language that is very or rather important for their profession and career growth. Fourth, almost two-thirds of the respondents consider the role played by a university of business and management in the improvement of German language proficiency rather or very important. In conclusion, the study proposes directions for the potential development of the national educational system in the area of German language proficiency of university graduates in business and management in the Czech Republic, with an emphasis on the concept of content and language integrated learning (CLIL). We believe that the survey results are also very important from the point of view of enterprises operating in the Czech Republic because of the very close economic relations between the Czech Republic and German-speaking countries.

Open access

Agnieszka Czech-Rogoyska and Magdalena Krawiec

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