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Poland joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. By 2007, this had resulted in Poland being the greatest beneficiary of the European cohesion policy due to its low per capita GDP by purchasing power parity at the voivodeship level. The scale of European Structural and Investment Funds brought the possibility for a fundamental acceleration of socio-economic growth in Polish regions. The European Union gradually modified the directions of intervention under the framework of the European cohesion policy, initially orienting this activity principally towards cohesion, but from 2010 directing it mainly towards competitiveness. Of particular significance was the Europe 2020 strategy (2010). In Poland its arrangements were deferred until the signing of the Partnership Agreement for the period 2014-2020, which established extensive support for innovation, competitiveness and the R&D sector. In the final part of the paper, conclusions and recommendations for regional policy are elaborated.
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This paper aims to analyse Spanish tourism policy and its relation to a series of facts. The research combines an extensive review of the existing studies into the aspects of tourism policy linked to government, geography and economy with an examination of statistical sources. The main issues and findings analysed in this study are highlighted below. Firstly, the evolution of tourism policy of Spain in the last 60 years in relation to the process of national economic development is analysed. Secondly, a limited role of tourism on economic and territorial balance as well as changes in the regional distribution in the supply of hotel accommodation is highlighted. Thirdly, territorial changes related to the supply of hotel accommodation and GDP per capita are discussed. Finally, certain topics are suggested for future debate: tourism and imbalance as well as tourism and development.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment. To analyse whether it is marginalised groups who are more likely to engage in unregistered employment and explain the country-level variations, a 2010 Life in Transition Survey (LiTS) involving 38,864 interviews in 35 Eurasian countries is reported. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals that younger age groups, the divorced, and those with fewer years in education, are more likely to be unregistered employed. On a country-level, meanwhile, the prevalence of unregistered employment is strongly associated with tax morale; the greater the asymmetry between informal and formal institutions, the greater is the prevalence of unregistered employment. It is also higher when GDP per capita as well as social distribution and state intervention (subsidies and transfers, social contribution expenditure, health expenditure) are lower. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and policy implications.
We analyze the influence of newly constructed globalization measures on regional growth for the EU-27 countries between 2001 and 2006. The spatial Chow-Lin procedure, a method constructed by the authors, was used to construct, on a NUTS-2 level, complete regional data for exports, imports and FDI inward stocks, which serve as indicators for the influence of globalization, integration and technology transfers on European regions. The results suggest that most regions have significantly benefited from globalization measured by increasing trade openness and FDI. In a non-linear growth convergence model, the growth elasticities for globalization and technology transfers decrease with increasing GDP per capita. Furthermore, the estimated elasticity for FDI decreases when the model includes a higher human capital premium for CEE countries and a small significant growth enhancing effect accrues from the structural funds expenditures in the EU.
Applying the linear LAS (Latin American Structuralists) technological intensity model in Africa, this paper presents African nations are still diversifying their outputs towards the ubiquitous (fewer complexes) products. Put it simple, using the economic complexity index of Africa (explanatory variable) as a proxy for the technological intensity in Africa and per capita GDP gap (explanatory variable) as a proxy for technology gap, the paper presents a significant and positive relationship between economic complexity index of Africa and the time derivative of the economic complexity index of Africa (the explained variable). This implies that “weak” effort African nations exerted so far in diversifying their outputs towards the less ubiquitous commodities and absence of “automatic catch up tendency” (unlike what is presupposed by the mainstream neo-classical growth models). The linear panel data regression is employed on sample of 23 African economies and OECD member economies for the period 1996-2014.
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Yuwadee Leelukkanaveer, Pornchai Sithisarankul and Narin Hirunsutthikul
Background: Provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing (PIHIVCT) is an important intervention that improves the access to care to HIV-infected patients and subsequently contributes to the success of national HIV/AIDS control efforts. However, in Thailand, the cost-effectiveness of this program is unknown. Objective: Determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) in terms of Thai Baht per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) of PIHIVCT for outpatient department (OPD) patients in community hospitals of Thailand compared with the current practice. Methods: A model-based health economic evaluation study was conducted based on results from cluster randomized controlled trials in 16 community hospitals of Thailand. The Markov model and the probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used. One-thousand two-hundred seventy-seven HIV-infected patients completed questionnaires on their household expenditure and quality of life using the visual analog scale. Results: In social perspectives, the PIHIVCT program increased a patient’s life span by 5.18 days or 4.15 qualityadjusted days per OPD case and the ICER was 63,588 Baht per QALY gained. The subgroup analysis showed that the PIHIVCT program would be cost-effective for cases younger than 50 years if the ceiling threshold of willing to pay equaled the per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, this intervention would be cost-effective for all cases of 13-64 year old if the ceiling threshold equaled three times of GDP. Conclusion: The provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing program for OPD patients is more cost-effective than the current practice and should be implemented in health care setting in Thailand.
In this paper systemic problems of Ukrainian banking sector are reviewed and the solutions are offered. The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between a financial deepening and economic growth in Ukraine by estimating several multiple regression models over the 1993 to 2015 period. A real GDP growth per capita was used as an indicator for the economic growth. The domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP) was used as an index of financial depth. The study concludes that financial deepening causes a slight impact on the economic growth of Ukraine. A low level of impact is an indicator of a limitedness of lending to the real economy. This means that banking sector has not become the real driving force of the economic growth in Ukraine yet. The study suggests a statement that policy makers should design the policies which will encourage lending especially high tech production, small and mid-size business, micro financing to the real economy to promote economic growth and increase employment.