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Natalija Stefanović, Ivana Ćirić, Snežana Pavlović, Braca Kundalić, Saša Bubanj, Emilija Petković, Miloš Puletić and Vlada Antić

are meassurements with ImageJ. http://prometheuswiki.publish.csiro.au/tiki-index.Php? Hewett TE, Torg JS, Boden BP. Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during noncontact anterior crutiate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abducton motion are combined componentes of the injury mechanism. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43: 417-22. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2009.059162 Đurašković R. Sportska medicina. M KOPS Centar, Niš, 2009: 176-226 (in Serbian). Kazemi, M, RN, DC, FCCSS

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Ravikumar Patel and Jayvadan Patel

Development and evaluation of in situ novel intragastric controlled-release formulation of hydrochlorothiazide

In situ forming intragastric controlled-release formulation is a new technology in the field of oral controlled-release delivery systems. The objective of this study was to develop formulations that can control drug release up to 24 hours. In addition, a combination of appropriate polymers and solvents was selected that could form a drug loaded gel at the process temperature of 60-70 °C, which gel could turn into a rigid mass upon exposure to dissolution fluid at body temperature. The drug release mechanism from this rigid mass was controlled by different formulation factors such as different polymer grades, polymer concentrations, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of solvents, different drug loadings, and physicochemical properties of additional excipients. After evaluating different formulation factors, Ethocel 10 FP and triethyl citrate were selected for further studies using hydrochlorothiazide as a model drug. Polynomial correlation between viscosity of the blank gel and drug release profile was also obtained.

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Zoran Golušin, Olivera Levakov and Biljana Jeremić

Abstract

Urethritis is a clinical syndrome which is characterized by mucopurulent or purulent urethral discharge with or without dysuria, due to an increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the anterior urethra. Antimicrobial therapy and preventive measures are essential in the management of bacterial urethritis. However, these drugs may cause antimicrobial resistance, resulting in unsuccessful treatment and complications of urethritis. Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics is well known for decades, and in recent years there are more cases of resistance of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium to different antibiotics. There is a danger that in the future certain strains of N. gonorrhoeae will be resistant to all available antimicrobial agents, unless new antibiotics to which resistance will not develop rapidly or an effective vaccine are developed.

Open access

Maja Peraica, Darko Richter and Dubravka Rašić

frequency and concentration levels of aflatoxins and ochratoxins in urine samples of boys and girls. Mycopatologia 2000;152:35-40. doi: 10.1023/A:1011950512675 50. Jiang Y, Jolly PE, Ellis WO, Wang J-S, Phillips TD, Williams JH. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adduct levels and cellular immune status in Ghanaians. Int Immunol 2005;17:807-14. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxh262 51. Denning DW, Quiepo SC, Altman DG, Makarananda K, Neal GE, Camallere EL, Morgan MR, Tupasi TE. Aflatoxin and outcome from acute lower respiratory infection in children in The

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Mladen Pavlović and Naima Čorović

[Parsimonian analytical model for diagnosing knee joint arthrosis, in Croatian]. [M.Sc. Thesis]. Zagreb: University School of medicine; 1996. Jazbec A. Interakcija kardiovaskularnih i respiratornih čimbenika te životnih navika u procjeni doživljenja [Modeling interactions between cardiovascular and respiratory factors in estimation of life expectancy, in Croatian]. [Ph.D. Thesis] Zagreb: University School of Medicine; 2003.

Open access

The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a self- -emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) formulation to improve solubility and dissolution and to enhance systemic exposure of a BCS class II anthelmetic drug, albendazole (ABZ). In the present study, solubility of ABZ was determined in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants to identify the microemulsion components. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the microemulsification existence area. SEDDS formulation of ABZ was prepared using oil (Labrafac Lipopfile WL1349) and a surfactant/ co-surfactant (Tween 80/PEG 400) mixture and was characterized by appropriate studies, viz., microemulsifying properties, droplet size measurement, in vitro dissolution, etc. Finally, PK of the ABZ SEDDS formulation was performed on rats in parallel with suspension formulation. It was concluded that the SEDDS formulation approach can be used to improve the dissolution and systemic exposure of poorly water-soluble drugs such as ABZ.

Open access

Diler Aslan and Sverre Sandberg

Simple Statistics in Diagnostic Tests

Diagnostic performance of a laboratory test is one of the key elements in decision making on diagnosis, screening, monitoring, risk assessment and prognosis of diseases. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic curves are the measures of diagnostic accuracy of a test. The pretest probability of a disease or a target condition can be enhanced by the use of these measures, and hence the decision is made with the posttest probability. These measures are also used for analysis and critical appraisal of literature for finding the best evidence in the five-step model of evidence-based medicine approach, as well as for integrating the research results into clinical usage. In this context, the specialists in laboratory medicine should assess the diagnostic performance of a laboratory test as well as its analytical performance in order to take part in the management of health care services and health care resources. The aim of this review is to summarize the simple Statistics in diagnostic tests.

Open access

Marijana Končič, Zrinka Rajič, Neva Petrič and Branka Zorc

Antioxidant activity of NSAID hydroxamic acids

In the present study, seven hydroxamic acid derivatives of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, fenoprofen, ketoprofen, indomethacin and diclofenac) were found to possess significant antioxidant, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. The most active antioxidant and radical scavenger was N-methylhydroxamic acid of diclofenac (ANT = 88.0% and EC 50 = 60.1 μg mL-1). The activity of the standard substance, butylated hydroxyanisole, in the two assays was ANT = 86.9% and EC 50 = 18.8 μg mL-1, respectively. Ibuproxam was the strongest iron chelator among investigated hydroxamic acids (EC 50 = 255.6 μg mL-1), yet significantly weaker than the standard substance, EDTA (EC 50 = 29.1 μg mL-1). It seems that different mechanism is involved in metal chelating activity than in antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities may be connected with conjugation of the nitrogen lone electron pair with the carbonyl group. On the other hand, more hydrophilic substances tend to be better iron chelators.

Open access

Bazigha Rasool, Uday Aziz, Omar Sarheed and Alaa Rasool

Design and evaluation of a bioadhesive film for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride

The objective of the study was to develop a suitable trans-dermal delivery system for propranolol hydrochloride (PPL) via employing chitosan as a film former. Drug concentration uniformity, thickness, moisture uptake capacity and skin bioadhesion of the films were characterized. The effects of chitosan and PPL concentration and different penetration enhancers on the release and permeation profiles from the films were investigated. Skin irritation of the candidate film was evaluated. Chitosan film (PPL 2 mg cm-2, chitosan 2 %, m/m, cineol 10 %, m/m) was found nonirritant and achieved 88.2 % release after 8 hours in phosphate buffer. Significant high (p < 0.001) permeation of PPL through rat skin was obtained using this film compared to the film without enhancer (about 8 times enhancement factor), making it a promising trans-dermal delivery system for PPL.

Open access

Julia V. Vanteeva and Svetlana V. Solodyankina

Abstract

Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol’khonie steppes and forest steppes, which are part of the Pribaikalskyi National Park (western coast of Lake Baikal, Russia). The aim of this investigation is the assessment of different landscapes’ values for the provision of ecosystems functions and services. To meet these objectives, fieldwork was conducted in the Priol’khonie steppes and forest steppes during the summer of 2013. The function of phytomass formation was considered for different land-cover types identified in the area, and the above-ground phytomass and inter-rill erosion were measured. The level of landscape degradation was estimated and draft maps of phytomass stocks and vulnerability to soil erosion of the investigated area were compiled. To show the dependence between the studied ecosystem functions and the ecosystem services provided by them, a scoring of the latter was made. It was found that characteristics of ecosystem functions varied significantly in the steppes of the Priol’khonie.