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Purpose of the article The paper is seeking the mutual links between creativity, innovation and tourism in the rural areas. Creativity and innovation are often associated with cities, because the potential of creative industries and people is concentrated in cities. Is this assumption correct? Using examples from practice, this paper explains that creativity in tourism may be associated with the rural areas.
Methodology/methods The contribution is linked with theoretical basis of creative economy under the research assignment APVV-0101-10 Creative economy - national economic and regional conditions and incentives. Therefore, it is based on analysis and comparison of views on possibilities for attracting the creative class to rural areas on one hand, and for development of creative activities within rural tourism on the other hand. Scientific aim The aim of the paper is to confirm the existence of real link between creativity, tourism and rural areas. Findings In the first part of the contribution, the basic terms as creativity, creative industry and creative class are explained and possibilities for their localization in rural areas are examined. Studies confirm that rural areas can become attractive environment for creative class despite problems like spatial diffusion of local resources and capacities and limited accessibility of capital. High-quality environment, attractive natural, cultural and historical potential and convenient infrastructure belong among the reasons for localization of creative class in rural areas. The same attributes are important for tourists who decide where to spend their free time. Conclusions Consequently, the support for development of rural tourism is understood in the paper as an instrument to improve the quality of places (municipalities) as well as to attract creative class and creative industries to rural municipalities. In the second part, the emphasis is put on definition of creative tourism as a creative industry based on creative activities. Examples of well-developed creative tourism in Europe are also given in this part, namely thematic routes connecting rural and urban municipalities, presenting them under certain theme issuing from local or regional culture and traditions.
1 The paper received “The Alena Brunovska Award for Teaching Excellence in Public Administration” at the 22 nd NISPAcee Annual Conference 2014 held in Budapest, Hungary, May 22–24, 2014.
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The paper focuses on six technological innovations which have influenced English language teaching and learning. Their potential is analysed and the way suggested how they could be creatively used. In the research part, authors introduce the most popular ones among English teachers and present those they would like to apply within the lessons. Being able to analyse the opposite point of view as well, small number of English students were asked which of these technological tools their English teachers use the most and on the other hand, would like to experience when learning English. In addition, we compare the difference in their choice when teaching and learning English at primary and secondary school.
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The transformational 1990s significantly differentiated the regional model of Ukraine, which eventually began to resemble a system of uncontrolled chronic economic decline, as the existing planning and regulatory methods had become redundant, the market-based approaches being not actualized. The methodological vacuum in which Ukraine found itself did not allow regions to solve the existing problems by means of European economic convergence instruments. Despite the fact that more and more theories and concepts appeared in the leading developed countries (regional competitiveness, city- region, beautiful places, creative city, localization, etc.), national science used outdated ideas of planned regulation, inappropriate in market economy. The effect of government policies resembled core measures of the neoliberal model, while maintaining a high degree of administrative centralization.
FDI inflow fundamentally altered the regional landscape. The leading position in accumulating the FDI stock belonged to Kyiv, which also produced the largest per capita GDP. In the last five years a revival of innovation activity took place in the Ukrainian regions. Eventually it obtained an undulating character, moving basically along two axes: Lviv-Kviv and Kyiv-Kharkiv. However, low FDI level in the worst performing regions could create an erroneous impression about the positive impact of FDI on regional economy.
A region's development trajectory> might also be affected by the mentality of its inhabitants, as well as the media, whose impact can convey either a cohesive or disintegrating character. This was evidenced by the recent events in Ukraine, as well as the "East versus West” confrontation, which resulted in frustration, whereas the lack of tolerance among the population of certain regions provoked the bloodshed. Thus, identification of methodological background of post-Soviet regionalism on the example of Ukraine is an important scientific task, which may explain the essence of regional asymmetries in the post-Soviet states.
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