Optimization and equilibrium studies of Pb(II) removal by Grewia Asiatica seed: a factorial design approach
This study aims to explore the efficiency of an agro waste material for the remediation of Pb(II) contaminated water. A factorial design approach is adopted to optimize removal efficiency and to study the interaction between effective variables. A face-centered Draper-Lin composite design predicted 100% removal efficiency at optimum variables; pH 8, initial concentration of Pb(II) ion 12mg/L, sorbent dose 200mg and agitation time 110 min. Regration coefficient (R2 = 99.9%) of a plot of the predicted versus the observed values and p value (>0.05) confirms the applicability of the predicted model. Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were applicable to sorption data with the Langmuir sorption capacity of 21.61±0.78 mg/g. The energy of sorption was found to be 13.62±0.32 kJ/mol expected for ion-exchange or chemisorption nature of sorption process. Characterization of Grewia seed suggested a possible contribution of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in the process of biosorption. The present study shows that Grewia seeds can be used effectively for the remediation of Pb(II) contaminated water.
The removal of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac sodium salt (DCF, C14H10Cl2NNaO2) from water in two hybrid systems coupling photolysis or photocatalysis with direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) is presented. A UV-C germicidal lamp was used as a source of irradiation. The initial concentration of DCF was in the range of 0.005-0.15 mmol/dm3 and the TiO2 Aeroxide® P25 loading (hybrid photocatalysis-DCMD) ranged from 0.05 to 0.4 g/dm3. Regardless of the applied hybrid system and the initial concentration of DCF, the model drug was completely decomposed within 4h of irradiation or less. Mineralization was less efficient than photodecomposition. In case of the hybrid photolysis-DCMD process the efficiency of TOC degradation after 5h of irradiation ranged from 27.3-48.7% depending on the DCF initial concentration. The addition of TiO2 allowed to improve the efficiency of TOC removal. The highest degradation rate was obtained at 0.3 gTiO2/dm3. During the process conducted with the lowest DCF initial concentrations (0.005-0.025 mmol/dm3) a complete mineralization was obtained. However, when higher initial amounts of DCF were used (0.05-0.15 mmol/dm3), the efficiency of TOC degradation was in the range of 82.5-85%. The quality of distillate was high regardless of the system: DCF was not detected, TOC concentration did not exceeded 0.7 mg/dm3 (1.9 mg/dm3 in permeate) and conductivity was lower than 1.6 μS/cm.
The adsorption and the inhibitive properties of methanol extract of Euphorbia heterophylla on copper in 0.5 M HNO3 have been studied by weight loss method at different temperatures (30-50°C), potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. Also, the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract doses and decreased with increasing temperature. The polarization data revealed that this extract acts as mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption process was more favored at lower temperatures with larger negative standard free energy. The extract was adsorbed physically on the copper surface followed Frumkin isotherm.
In this work, the efficiency of Ulva fasciata sp. activated carbons (CCUC, SCUC and SSUC) and commercially activated carbon (CAC) were studied for the removal of Cu (II) ions from synthetic wastewater. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, contact time, initial copper concentration and adsorbent dose. The percentage adsorption of copper by CCUC, SSUC, SCUC and CAC are 88.47%, 97.53%, 95.78% and 77.42% respectively. Adsorption data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models. Two kinetic models pseudo first order and the pseudo second order were selected to interpret the adsorption data.
Fly ash and slag were examined for the removal processes of Pb(II) ions from water in batch experiments under different conditions of adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and contact time. The materials are industrial waste generated from the high temperature treatment of sewage sludge by the circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology. Physical and chemical properties, as well as adsorption efficiency and calculated maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) ions were determined using a variety of methods. The kinetic analysis revealed that the adsorption process is better described by the pseudo-second order equation and it is well fitted to the Freundlich model.
Synthesis via ozone precipitation reaction was used to obtain manganese dioxide (OMD) and it was probed as an adsorbent for zinc ions. Adsorption was followed along shaking time and increasing ratio [NO3−] / [Zn2+], and isotherms were obtained at different pH values and in the presence of several anions (chloride, nitrate, sulphate, and acetate). It was found that adsorption equilibrium is fast and follows the pseudo-second order model (qe = 34 ±1 mg/g and K = 0.07 ±0.01 g/mg h). Isotherms were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich models, and the best fitting was found with the last one. The process is dependent on pH and the efficiency increases from pH 1 to 4. The ratio [NO3−] / [Zn2+] up to 3 does not seem to change the behaviour of the process. Regarding the anions, the efficiency of Zn(II) adsorption occurs according to: acetate > nitrate and sulphate > chloride. Manganese oxide obtained via ozonization is an excellent adsorbent for zinc ions.
Optimized methods for simultaneous removal of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium are important features of nutrient removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency in an intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IA-SBR) with multiple filling events was studied. No external carbon source was added and three filling events were considered. Oxidationreduction potential (ORP) and pH curve at solids retention time (SRT) of 20 d were analyzed. Effects of three organic loading rates (OLR), 0.67, 1.0 and 1.5 kgCOD/m3d, and three nitrogen loading rates (NLR), 0.054, 0.1 and 0.15 kgN/m3d, on nitrogen removal were studied. Nitrate Apex in pH curve and Nitrate Knee in ORP profile indicated that the end of denitrification would be achieved sooner. The kinetic coefficients of endogenous decay (kd) and yield (Y) were identified to evaluate heterotrophic specific denitrification rate (SDNRb). In period 2 at NLR of 0.054 kgN/m3d and considering 2 anoxic and 3 aerobic phases, nitrogen removal efficiency was 91.43%.
Photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye using doped and undoped ZnS nanoparticles
In the present study, ZnS nanoparticles were prepared using the mechanochemical method. The ZnS nanoparticles prepared were doped with different concentrations of manganese using metal acetate and manganese acetate by mechanochemical method. The as-prepared particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared nanoparticles samples, in the photocatalytic degradation of malachite green, had been investigated. The nanoparticles were photo induced, generating hole transfer for photocatalytic activity. The photodegradation of malachite green was observed at different pH (2-5) values, dye concentrations (10-100mg/L) and amount of ZnS nanoparticles (1-2.5 g/L). About 95% degradation of dye was observed on the addition of 2 g/L ZnS in 50 mg/L dye solution after 90 minutes illumination at 125 W. Degradation has been increased up to 99% using UV/nanoparticles/H2O2 (50 mL/L) combined process. The degradation efficiency was also compared using Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles (Zn1-x MnxS, where x = 0.01, 0.22 and 0.3). Maximum of 97% degradation was observed with 0.01% concentration of Mn. Kinetics study and performance of UV/ZnS, UV/ZnS/H2O2, UV/doped ZnS processes were evaluated to compare the efficiency of different processes.
The process of production of filtration mats of various thickness from PVC and PVDF polymers by the electrospinning method is presented in the paper. Filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection systems, in particular in air-conditioning and ventilation appliances. This problem can be effectively solved by application of non-woven fibrous filtration mats. The experimental investigations of mechanical properties of nanofibrous filtration mats produced by electrospinning and the measurements of removal efficiency of submicron particles from flowing gas have indicated potential usefulness of these nanomats for gas cleaning of air-conditioning systems and/or ventilation ducts. The experimental results obtained for cigarette smoke of a mass median diameter of about 1 μm, used as test particles, have shown that nonwoven nanofibrous filtration mats produced by electrospinning have a good filtration efficiency for nano- and submicron particles, owing to a pressure drop similar to HEPA filters. Particles of this size are particularly difficult to be removed from the flow by a conventional method, for example, by a cyclone or electrostatic precipitator.
A process model for turbulent pressurized circulating fluidized-bed coal gasifier is created using ASPEN PLUS software. Both hydrodynamic and reaction kinetics parameter are taken into account, whose expressions for fluidized bed are adopted from the literature. Various reactor models available in ASPEN PLUS with calculator as External Block are nested to solve hydrodynamics and kinetics. Multiple operational parameters for a pilot-plant circulating fluidized-bed coal gasifier are used to demonstrate the effects on coal gasification characteristics. This paper presents detailed information regarding the simulation model, including robust analysis of the effect of stoichiometric ratio, steam to coal ratio, gasification temperature and gasification agent temperature. It is observed that, with the increase in the flow rate of air, the components hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane reduce, which causes the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of synthesis gas (Syn. Gas) to decrease by about 29.3%, while increment in the steam flow rate shows a minute increase in heating value of only 0.8%. Stoichiometric ratio has a direct relationship to carbon conversion efficiency and carbon dioxide production. Increasing the steam to coal ratio boosts the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and causes a drop in both carbon dioxide concentration and the conversion efficiency of carbon. High gasifying agent temperature is desired because of high concentration of CO and H2, increasing carbon conversion and LHV. A high gasifying agent temperature is the major factor that affects the coal gasification to enhance H2 and CO production rapidly along with other gasification characteristics.