Atanas Vlaykov, Dian Sharlanov and Dilyana Vicheva
Background. Supernumerary teeth are described as an excess of the normal teeth number of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth and can occur in any dental region.
Material and methods. The authors present the case of a 12-year-old female child with a paramolar in the maxilla, discovered accidentally during an orthopantomogram, emphasising the treatment modality and the complications that can appear.
Conclusion. Supernumerary teeth can be present in any region of the oral cavity. Both practitioners and clinicians should be aware of the various types of paramolars and make a treatment plan after an accurate clinical and radiographic examination.
Whiplash syndrome is a quite common pathology and can be defined as a neck injury produced by a sudden acceleration-deceleration, the consequence of which is a sudden forward and backward movement of the head and neck. The main production mechanism is a sudden acceleration-deceleration process that has as a consequence the sudden extension/flexion of the neck. Starting from the many structures involved, the whiplash syndrome is an interdisciplinary challenge (ENT specialist, neurologist, orthopedist, ophthalmologist, psychologist) and can be described by multiple signs and symptoms.
Whiplash syndrome is a complex pathology both through the mechanism of production and symptoms, and through the forensic implications that it has. The interdisciplinary medical collaboration, the implementation of stricter rules on wearing the seat belt and the development by car manufacturers of chairs and head restraints that protect the head and neck of passengers, would be the preventive step in the occurrence and especially the chronicization of these lesions.
Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a clinical entity lacking consensual meaning, illustrating a rare nose surgery complication, particularly of nasal conchae surgery, which results in the destruction of the normal nasal tissue. In severe forms it may become debilitating; the inability in identification and appreciation of this syndrome turns detrimental to the patient. Physiopathology remains controversial, which probably implies disorders caused by excessive nasal permeability, affecting neurosensory receptors as well as the humidification functions and conditioning of inhaled air. Neuropsychological involvement is being suspected. Symptomatology is both variable and changeable, the most evident sign outlining paradoxical nasal obstruction. The diagnosis is based on a series of symptoms that need to be collected precisely, the objective examination that highlights the permeability of nasal fossae. The management is problematic; there are implemented a complete range of simple hygiene and humidification techniques of the nasal cavity and, for more severe cases, surgery is provided, regardless of technique, the surgery targeting partial filling of the nasal airways. Prevention is the most essential strategy along with basic conservative surgical techniques.
Clinical entities of food allergy in allergic rhinitis patients due to IgE-sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are well described, but less data are available regarding allergic reactions to foods containing aeroallergens, either due to food contamination, such as oral mite anaphylaxis, or due to their natural presence in the edible products, such as pollen grains in honey and bee products. There are some potential risks for allergic rhinitis subjects due to ingestion of food products containing domestic mite, insect, fungal and pollen allergens. The knowledge of these risks is useful for the allergists and ENT specialists, especially in the context of climate changes with warmer periods facilitating mite growth in flours, and of increase use of phytotherapy and apitherapy products containing pollen grains.
Nadia Syafeera Naserrudin and Mohammed Azman Mohammad Raffiq
BACKGROUND. The malignant sinonasal tumour is very rare. Sinonasal adenocarcinoma comprises only 10-20% of all primary malignant sinonasal tumours. The commonest type is the maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. It commonly presents with nasal blockage, nasal discharge and epistaxis during the early stage. Headache and blurry vision may occur at an advanced stage when it has invaded the brain, the eye or the optic nerve.
CASE REPORT. We present a 63-year-old patient with acute progressive worsening unilateral blurry vision and headache for 1 month. Epistaxis with anosmia developed only later. The patient had a neuroimaging by both Computed Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan which showed a skull base tumour, but early biopsy was inconclusive. He underwent combined transcranial and transsphenoidal tumor debulking in view of clinical impression of olfactory neuroblastoma. The histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma. He was sent for postoperative radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION. We highlighted that a patient with sinonasal adenocarcinoma may present initially with the symptom of invasion to neighbouring structures prior to the local symptom.
Irén Csiszér, Silvu Albu, Cristian Mircea Neagos, Marius Navadarszki and Adriana Neagos
OBJECTIVE. This study examines the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and the pharyngeal parameters using the ultrasound of the submental region.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. For this study, data obtained from 40 patients, who had undergone investigations in the Galenus Medical Centre in order to diagnose sleep apnea, was analyzed. The following parameters were compared: the transverse diameter of the retrolingual region, the transverse diameter of the retropalatal region and the tongue base thickness. These regions were measured at different moments of respiration such as: during forced expiration, during forced inspiration and while the patients performed Müller’s Manoeuvre. The neck circumference, the body mass index of patients and the severity of sleep apnea obtained from polysomnography were analyzed.
RESULTS. The evaluation of the results revealed: severe obstructive sleep apnea in 16 patients, respectively moderate severity in 10 patients, mild apnea in 4 patients, and no obstructive sleep apnea in 10 patients. Statistically significant results (p<0.05) were found after comparing the parameters obtained in patients with severe apnea versus the parameters in patients without apnea, with mild or respectively moderate apnea.
CONCLUSION. Based on the results obtained, we consider that cervical ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of severe obstructive apnea, identifying the pathological changes of the anatomical structures that basically cause this category of disease. Due to the fact that in our country ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive method, being also a non-irradiating, repeatable and accessible method, it should be more widely applied also in the field of otorhinolaryngology in order to view structures accessible to this type of imaging.
Congenital anosmia, isolated or as a symptom of Kallmann or Klinefelter syndrome, is a rare condition found in young patients and children. Anosmia is detected during childhood, being reported by the patient or by his/her family. Besides the clinical examination and olfactometric evaluation, imaging is mandatory for the olfactory pathways investigation. Multidisciplinary approach is needed for these patients in order to determine the etiology of the smell loss. In the current paper, we are presenting the case of an 11-year-old child diagnosed in our ENT Department with congenital anosmia.