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The Relative Age Effect in Poland's Elite Youth Soccer Players

categorization of players by chronological age from January 1 to December 31. The cut-off date system is in accordance with the 1997 guidelines of the European Union Football Association (UEFA). Nevertheless, game categories group together players based on two-year birth periods, leaving coaches with considerable disparities among their trainees’ physiques. Significant relationships have been reported among body composition, coordination and motor skills, and the selection process in soccer ( Vandendriessche et al., 2012 ). Therefore, a more comprehensive approach is required

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The Effectiveness of Land and Water Based Resistance Training on Shoulder Rotator Cuff Strength and Balance of Youth Swimmers

an increase in shoulder rotators balance and ER endurance. Therefore, swimming coaches should use mainly dry-land strength-training programs, focusing specifically on strengthening the ER and stabilizers of the shoulder joint. Acknowledgements This project was supported by the National Funds through FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UID/DTP/04045/2013) - and the European Fund for regional development (FEDER) allocated by the European Union through the COMPETE 2020 Programme (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006969). References Bak K, Magnusson

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Motivational Climate Sport Youth Scale: Measurement Invariance Across Gender and Five Different Sports

perception athletes have about the motivational climate in view of the success or failure criteria that are inherent to the sport accomplishment context. Nevertheless, we recommend conducting further studies with this scale in other individual sports, including invariance model analysis, in order to better understand its psychometric properties. Acknowledgments This project was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the European Union (UID/DTP/04045/2013; POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006969) References Ames C. Achievement goals

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Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise

indicator of the type and extent of injury. Our data and previous research suggest that it is an inappropriate marker of EIMD, however, plasma GSN concentrations show significant relationships with indicators of EIMD and the inflammatory process in striated muscles after exercise. This may explain the elevated plasma AGP level and the correlation between GSN and AGP concentrations. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Hungarian Society of Sport Science, the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Social Fund in the framework

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The Impact of Rule Modifications on Elite Basketball Teams’ Performance

the final game-related statistics. Therefore, future research should be controlled for technical, tactical and physical information, such as series of discrete events, physical performances and the interactions affected by the quality of the opposition. Acknowledgements This work was partially subsidized by the Ayuda a los Grupos de Investigación (GR15122) of the Junta de Extremadura (Consejería de Economía e Infraestructuras); with the contribution of the European Union through the FEDER. References Arias JL, Argudo FM, Alonso JI. Review of rule

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Voluntary Activity of Polish People and its Motives in Recent Years: New Volunteering


This article covers an issue or the phenomenon of volunteering. The introduction is a recall of a definition of volunteering. Then it shows the distribution of voluntary activity in different countries of the European Union in order to look at some aspects of the phenomenon in the microscale of one country - Poland. It shows the percentage of involvement of Polish women and men in volunteering, their age, their motives to work for others. It makes the reader to think about an innovative definition of volunteering.

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Drug use in Ghana: knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes in a small group of elite student sportspersons

qualitative psychosociological approach Scand J Med Sci Sports2010 ; 20: 336-345. 8. Papadopoulos FC, Skalkidis I, Parkkari J, et al. ‘‘Sports Injuries’’ European Union Group. Doping use among tertiary education students in six developed countries. Eur J Epidemiol 2006; 21: 307-313. 9. The World Anti-Doping Code 2011 (2011) 10. Thomas JO, Dunn M., Swift W, et al. Illicit drug knowledge and information

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Sport and other motor activities of Warsaw students

:// European Commission (2010) The citizens of the European Union and Sport, Special Eurobarometer 213/62.0. Gratton C. (ed.; 1999) COMPASS, UK Sports Council, British Sports Council, Italian National Olympic Committee, pp. 13-14. Kraut A. S., S. Melamed, D. Gofer, P. Froom (2003) Effect of school age sports on leisure time physical activity in adults. The CORDIS Study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 35

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Level of physical activity of physical education students according to criteria of the IPAQ questionnaire and the recommendation of WHO experts

levels of physical activity assessed by IPAQ. J. Hum. Kin., 21: 89-96. 10. Piątkowska M., Participation of Polish in the physical activity in comparing to other countries of the European Union (2010) [in Polish]. In: Buśko K. Charzewska J., Kaczanowski K. (eds). Contemporary testing methods of the activity, the efficiency and the physical fitness of the human. AWF Warsaw, pp. 38-57. 11. Purdie D.M., Green A.C. (2001) Epidemiology of endometrial cancer. Best. Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol., 15(3): 341-354. 12

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Political disputes and consequences on tourism

References [1] Agapiou-Josephides, K 2003, ‘The Political System of Cyprus at the Threshold of the European Union: Patterns of Continuity, Change, and Adaptation’. In euro-med integration and the ‘ring of friends’: the Mediterranean’s European challenge, vol. iv, Xuereb, Peter G., Eds. European Documentation and Research Centre [2] Alipour, H & Kilic, H 2005, ‘An institutional appraisal of tourism development and planning: the case of the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC)’, Tourism Management, vol. 26, pp. 79-94 [3] Altinay, L 2000

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