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M. Hasby Saad, O. Safwat, D. El-Guindy, R. Raafat, D. Elgendy and E. Hasby

): Presence Of Reactive Microglia In Monkey Substantia Nigra Years After 1-Methyl- 4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Administration. Ann. Neurol., 54(5): 599 - 604. Doi: 10.1002/Ana.10728 Masocha, W., Kristensson, K. (2012): Passage Of Parasites Across The Blood-Brain Barrier. Virulence, 3(2): 202 - 212. Doi: 10.4161/Viru.19178 Medeiros, M.S., Schumacher-Schuh, A., Cardoso, A.M., Bochi, G.V., Baldissarelli, J., Kegler, A., Santana, D., Chaves, C.M., Schetinger, M.R., Moresco, R.N., Rieder, C.R., Fighera, M.R. (2016): Iron And Oxidative

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A. A. Othman and Z. S. Shoheib

parasites protect themselves against the host by activating various evasion mechanisms including HSP synthesis ( Buchmeier & Heffron, 1990 ). Apparently, HSPs play specific functions in differentiation of parasites, in protection from the host killing mechanisms, including free radicals, and even in virulence ( Devaney, 2006 ). Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) functions as a part of a multi-protein complex that promotes the folding and stability of client proteins. It is essential for survival of nematodes as confirmed in Brugia malayi ( Selkirk et al ., 1989

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Sonia Elena Popovici, Ovidiu Horea Bedreag and Dorel Sandesc

genus Acinetobacter with the recognition of Acinetobacter baumannii sp. nov., Acinetobacter haemolyticus sp. nov., Acinetobacter johnsoniisp. nov., and Acinetobacter junii sp. nov., and emended description of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter lwoffii. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36:228-240. 5. Jones CL, Clancy M, Honnold C, et al. Fatal outbreak of an emerging clone of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with enhanced virulence. Clin Infect Dis 2015, 61(2):145-54. 6. Choi WS, Kim SH, et al. Nosocomial Outbreak of Carbapenem

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Andrei-Marian Feier, Andrei-Constantin Ioanovici, Radu-Cristian Ionescu, Tamas Toth and Octav-Marius Russu

antibiotics in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 2001;55:2655-2661. 23. Zeng X, Liu X, Bian J, et al. Synergistic effect of 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide and various antibiotics on the formation of biofilms and production of exopolysaccharide and pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 2011;55:3015-3017. 24. Jakobsen TH, van Gennip M, Phipps RK, et al. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 2012;56:2314-2325. 25. Yang JY, Della

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Alexandra Lazăr, Anca Meda Georgescu, Alexander Vitin and Leonard Azamfirei

[ 4 ], renal cancer [ 5 ], gastrointestinal disorders [ 6 ] orthopaedics [ 7 ], and postoperative care [ 8 ] have been employed these areas. Pharmacogenomic biomarkers are currently accepted as key components in drug labelling. Table 1 . list the drugs and also the biomarkers which are related to those drugs. Table 1 Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labeling (10) Medical area Drug Biomarker Infectious Abacavir HLA-B Diseases Boceprevir IFNL3 (IL28B)- genetic variant near the gene encoding interferon-lambda-3

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Barbara Kołakowska

References 1. Finfer S. Clinical controversies in the management of critically ill patients with severe sepsis. Virulence [Internet]. 2014;5(1):200–5. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.4161/viru.25855 2. Lee SH, Park MS, Park BH, Jung WJ, Lee IS, Kim SY, et al. Prognostic implications of serum lipid metabolism over time during sepsis. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015(Ldl). 3. Simsek T, Uzelli Simsek H, Canturk NZ. Response to trauma and metabolic changes: posttraumatic metabolism. Turkish J Surg [Internet]. 2014

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S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin

temperament and previous experiences. The situation can be exemplified by comparing the issue with the development process of our immunity where immunity develops after the infections ( Hornor, 2017 ). Nowadays, in many situations, immunity can be produced by injecting pathogens without their virulence, which might be a challenge to find out similar mechanisms. However, systemic desensitization strategies for the treatment of phobia has been proved as an effective treatment ( Hornor, 2017 ). But, using those strategies before the onset of illness is yet to be tested