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Chunxiao Liu, Mingliang Li, Xingwang Yin, Hongliang Zhang, Lirun Xiang, Hongyue Zhai, Congcong Wang, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Zhijun Tian and Chaoliang Leng

polyprotein of 3,898 amino acids, with a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and a 3′UTR at either end ( 18 ). The polyprotein undergoes viral and cellular proteolysis to produce four structural proteins (C, E0 or E rns , E1, and E2) and eight non-structural proteins (N pro , P7, NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) ( 18 ). Because of its utility in tracking the virus origin and developing effective control strategies against CSF, many studies focus on sequence diversity analysis of CSFV, particularly the sequence variation associated with virulence changes ( 8 ). The sequence

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Dragos Florea, Steliana Huhulescu, Alexander Indra, Ioana Badicut, Alexandru Rafila, Dan Otelea and Gabriel Adrian Popescu

;29:33–7. 10. Kato H, Kato N, Katow S, Maegawa T, Nakamura S, Lyerly DM. Deletions in the repeating sequences of the toxin A gene of toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;175:197–203. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999. tb13620.x 11. Stubbs SL, Brazier JS, Talbot PR, Duerden BI. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of Bacteroides spp. and characterization of nitroimidazole resistance genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3209–13. 12. Spigaglia P, Mastrantonio P. Molecular analysis

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Branko Suvajdžić, Vlado Teodorović, Dragan Vasilev, Neđeljko Karabasil, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Jasna Đorđević and Vera Katić

– case report. Vet. Glasnik 2015, 69:301-310. 5. Akineden O, Annemuller C, Hassan AA, Lammler C, Wolter W, Zschock M: Toxin genes and other characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk of cows with mastitis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001, 8:959–964. 6. Melo PC, Ferreira LM, Filho AN, Zafalon, Vicente HIG, de Souza V: Comparison of methods for the detection of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis. Braz J Microbiol 2013, 44:119-124. 7. NMC. 1999. Current Concepts of Bovine Mastitis. 4th ed

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Supathra Tiewcharoen, Jundee Rabablert, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Waravee Wiyawuth, Nat Malainual, Virach Junnu, Kumchol Chaiyo and Prasert Auewarakul

, Lin J, et al. Comparing gene discovery from Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays and Clontech PCR-select cDNA subtraction: a case study. BMC Genomics. 2004; 5: 26. 10. Lacrue AN, Jamus AA, Beerntsen BT. The novel Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoite protein, Pg93, is preferentially expressed in the nucleus of oocyst sporozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 73:634-43. 11. Florent I, Porcel BM, Guillaume E, Silva CD, Artiguenave F, Maréchal E, et al. A Plasmodium falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST collection providing clues to schizont specific gene

Open access

W. Niedbalski

References Balasuriya UB, Nadler SA, Wilson WC, Pritchard LI, Smythe AB, Savini G, Monaco F, De Santis P, Zhang N, Tabachnick WJ, MacLachlan NJ (2008) The NS3 proteins of global strains of bluetongue virus evolve onto regional topotypes through negative (purifying) selection. Vet Microbiol 126: 91-100. Bonneau KR, Mullens BA, MacLachlan NJ (2001) Occurrence of genetic drift and founder effect during quasispecies evolution of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of bluetongue virus upon passage between sheep, cattle, and

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M. S. Sadeghi Bonjar, S. Salari, M. Jahantigh and A. Rashki

-1242. Deb JR, Harry EG ( 1978 ) Laboratory trials with inactivated vaccines against E coli (O2:K1) infection in fowls. Res Vet Sci 24: 308-313. Delicato ER, De Brito BG, Gaziri LC, Vidotto MC ( 2003 ) Virulence-associated genes in E coli isolates from poultry with colibacillosis. Vet Microbiol 94: 97-103. Derakhshandeh A, Zahraei Salehi T, Tadjbakhsh H, Karimi V ( 2009 ) Identification, cloning and sequencing of E coli strain chi1378 (O78:K80) iss gene isolated from poultry colibacillosis in Iran. Lett Appl Microbiol 49: 403-407. Dias da Silveira W

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W. Niedbalski

References Batten CA, Maan S, Shaw AE, Maan NS, Mertens PP ( 2008 ) A European field strains of bluetongue virus derived from two parental vaccine strains by genome segment reassortment. Virus Res 137: 56-63. Boone JD, Balasuriya UB, Karaca K, Audonnet JC, Yao J, He L, Nordgren R, Monaco F, Savini G, Gardner IA, MacLachlan NJ ( 2007 ) Recombinant canarypox virus vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the VP2 and VP5 outer capsid proteins of bluetongue virus induces high level protection in sheep. Vaccine 25

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Katarzyna Dmowska, Kinga Wieczorek, Orla Lynch and Jacek Osek

Abstract

A total of 135 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from slaughtered cattle and beef meat were tested by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The AscI restriction analysis revealed a genetic heterogeneity among investigated isolates since 31, 9, and 35 profiles were distinguished among hide, carcass, and meat strains, respectively. The PFGE profiles of the isolates were also analysed in relation to serotypes, virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance. It was shown that strains displaying the same PFGE type were of the same serotype while correlation between pulsotype and antimicrobial resistance was poor. The obtained results suggest that a cross-contamination between bovine hides and carcasses may occur during the slaughter process. Moreover, identification of identical PFGE types among L. monocytogenes found during a study period may suggest a common source of contamination or presence of persistent strains able to survive for a long time. These results emphasise the importance of molecular subtyping methods, including PFGE, in monitoring and tracking pathogen contamination along food chain.

Open access

Mariola Bochniarz, Władysław Wawron, Marek Szczubiał, Piotr Brodzki, Tomasz Piech and Roland Kusy

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. The material consisted of 42 isolates of S. xylosus obtained from 276 samples of milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis. The isolates were obtained from the udder secretions of 33 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). S. xylosus was found in 15.2% of tested milk samples. The study did not reveal any macroscopic changes in the milk or symptoms in the cow’s body. The number of somatic cells in milk samples ranged from 245,000 to 416,000/ml of milk (on average 268,000/ml of milk). The ability to produce slime was observed in 42.9% of S. xylosus isolates. None of the tested isolates demonstrated the ability to produce protease or cause haemolysis. Five isolates of S. xylosus (11.9%) were classified to the methicillin-resistant group. The mecA gene was not found in any of these isolates. The enzyme β-lactamase was detected in 28.6% of S. xylosus isolates. The highest efficacy against S. xylosus was demonstrated for cephalosporin antibiotics: cefacetrile and cefoperazone (80.1% and 76.2% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus, respectively). A significant quantity of isolates was resistant to streptomycin, linkomycin, penicillin and neomycin (approximately 10% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus).

Open access

Maria Wesołowska

niczak J., Niem ann J., Jajor E., Brachaczek A., Kaczmarek J., Książczyk T., 2012. The incidence of clubroot on winter oilseed rape in Poland and the search for sources of genetic resistance in interspecific hybrids and mutants within the genus Brassica. Abstracs 31th Scientific Conference Oilseed Crops, Poznań, 49-51. Kageyama K., Asano T., 2009. Life cycle of Plasmodiophora brassicae. J. Plant Growth Regul. 28: 203-211. Laszczak P., Szczep onek A., Wesołowska M., Michalik B., 2006. Comparison of virulence of Polish Plasmodiophora