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Dana Fialová and Nikol Jiroutová

References Albrechts, L., & Balducci, A. (2013). Practicing strategic planning: in search of critical features to explain the strategic character of plans. The Planning Review , 49(3), 16–27. DOI: 10.1080/02513625.2013.859001. Albrechts, L., Haley, P., & Kunzmann, K. R. (2003). Strategic spatial planning and regional governance in Europe. Journal of the American Planning Association , 69(2), 113–129. Bohemian Royal Towns. (2013). ABCD - VIDEO, spol. s r.o., (documentary film), [cit. 23. 1. 2016]. CZSO. (2016a). Počet obyvatel v obcích

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Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, Bronwyn Grant and Jennifer M. Fitchett

in a global context. In: International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34(13), pp.3604-3615. DOI: 10.1002/ joc.3932. Fitchett, J.M., Grab, S.W.and Thompson, D.I., 2015: Plant Phenology and Climate Change: Progress in Methodological Approaches and Applications. In: Progress in Physical Geography. DOI: http://dx.dpi.org/10.1177/0309133315578940 Fitchett, J.M., Grant, B. and Hoogendoorn, G., 2016: Climate change threats to two low-lying South African coastal towns: risks versus perceptions. In: South African Journal of Science (under

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Ganiyu Popoola Afolayan and Afolabi Monisola Tunde

References Afolayan, G.P., 2008: Community Participation in Infrastructure Provision: A Case Study of Medium-sized towns in Kwara State, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Dowall, D., 1994: The Land Market Assessment; A New Deal for Urban Management, Urban Management Programme, United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), Washington: World Bank, United Nations for Human Settlements. McKeown, R., 2002: Education for Sustainable Development, Toolkit. Retrieved 12/08/2007, from http

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Hana Vavrouchová, Mária Pákozdiová and Ilona Svobodová

systém půd ČR). Dostupné z <http://geoportal.gov.cz/web/guest/map>. CENIA (Česká informační agentura životního prostředí). Www. cenia.cz [online]. 2007, 2011 [cit. 2011-08-26]. Botanické mapy. Dostupné z <http://www.cenia.cz/__C12571B20041E945.nsf/$pid/CENMSFME9PAZ>. Cigale, D. - Lampič , B. - Ogrin, M. - Plut , D. - Rebernik, D. - Špes, M. - Vintar Mally, K. - Cet kovský, S. - Kalla bová, E. -Mikulík, O. - Vaishar, A. -Zapletal ová, J. 2006. Sustainable development of small towns a Slovenian-Moravian comparative methodological approach

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Harikesh N. Misra and Ashutosh Mishra

References Bell D., Jayne M. 2009. Small Cities? Towards a Research Agenda. Int. J. Urban Region. Res., 33(3): 683-699. Belova A.V., Levchenkov A.V. 2012. Innovation Centres as Growth Points for Smaller Towns and Rural Areas. Baltic Region , 4(3): 388-397. Berry B.J.L. 1969. Policy Implication of an Urban Location Model for the Kanpur Region. [In:] Desai P.B. et. al. (eds.), Regional Perspective of Industrial and Urban Growth: The Case of Kanpur , Macmillan, Bombay, 207. Courtney P., Mayfield L., Tranter R., Jones P., Errington A. 2007

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Domingo Cuéllar

Abstract

Railway towns, in their essence, are a specific evolution of the system of company towns, which disseminated during the 19th and 20th centuries. These company towns were characterised by communities of workers employed by the same company or group of companies, which owned the houses and infrastructures and exerted some sort of control over the town’s economic and social living. The model of a garden-city, under which most of the examples studied were developed, was the most common, although not the only one. Despite the relevance of these processes, there are no papers that analyse them in a global perspective and in the long run, but only studies that focus on particular cases with barely any contextualisation. Lest we forget that railway towns grew in tandem with the rail networks all over the world, from the most industrialised and populated areas to the new regions targeted for colonisation. In order to overcome this set of isolated reports of individual railway towns, in this paper, I group the most significant references and studies about railway towns created by different companies in different countries to propose a broader interpretation of the overall phenomenon. Amidst the features intended to be analysed, I highlight the origin and nature of these towns, their forms and urban structures, the most notable case studies, and their future as industrial heritage (questioning the reasons for the current status of the towns, some devoid of their railway functions, others with a lesser presence of the railway, and others almost depopulated).

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Jerzy Saczuk, Agnieszka Wasiluk and Adam Wilczewski

Abstract

Biological state of a group of people or particular individuals in various phases of ontogenesis should be treated as a positive health measure. The aim of the study was to assess the directions of changes in body height and age at menarche of girls from eastern Poland in the years 1986-2016. The data regarding 30784 students aged 10-16 living in towns and villages of the eastern parts of such regions as Podkarpackie, Lubelskie, Podlaskie, Warminsko-mazurskie and, to a slight extent, Mazowieckie were used in the study. Body height was measured and information concerning the place of living and age at menarche (yes-no) was gathered during interviews. Acceleration of body height and age at menarche was observed in girls from the east of Poland in the period of political transformation and after European Union (EU) accession, while the level of secular trends was connected with the pace of changes in the environment. Biological effects of the EU preservation of Polish agriculture and particular care of the eastern provinces of Poland reduced developmental differences between these provinces and other regions of Poland. Moreover, in the analysed period of three decades (1986-2016), the disappearance of differences in body height and age at menarche between the inhabitants of rural and urban areas was noted, which indicates larger positive socio-economic changes in the countryside. In turn, greater body height was noted in non-menstruating girls compared to their menstruating counterparts. However, in subsequent observations, smaller differences between these groups were observed.

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Natalia Bursiewicz

Introduction The public square is a construction inherited from the past that remains today as the quintessential element of the European town ( Levy 2012 : 156) Squares define and identify the principal space of any city, and often end up determining its identity. In urban structures, squares are distinguished by high functional and spatial values. Because of an interesting arrangement, squares often become a sophisticated cultural objects or even works of art. It also functions as a background for many events and projects; artistic, commercial or

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Jiří Malý

. [9] Cigale, D., Lampič, B., Ogrin, M., Plut, D., Rebernik, D., Špes, M., Vintar Mally, K., Cetkovský, S., Kallabová, E., Mikulík, O., Vaishar, A. & Zapletalová, J. (2006). Sustainable development of small towns a Slovenian-Moravian comparative methodological approach, Moravian Geographical Reports, 14(1), 17-28. [10] Claval, P. (1980). Centre-periphery and space: models of political geography. In Gottmann, J. (ed.) Centre and periphery: spatial variation in politics (pp. 63-71). Beverly Hills: SAGE. [11] Copus, A. K. (2001). From

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Jaouad El Asslouj, Loubna Amahdar, Kamal Glouib, Sanae Kholtei, Namira El Amrani Paaza, Luc Verschaeve and Abderraouf Hilali

References Ittas A. Urbanisation et assainissement: cas de la ville de Settat [Urbanization and sanitation: the case of the city of Settat; in French] [Thesis Management and Urbanism]. Rabat: 2001. Kholtei S. Caractérisation physico-chimique des eaux usées de la ville de Settat et de Berrechid et évaluation de leur impact sur la qualité des eaux souterraines [physico-chemical characterization of waste waters from the towns of Settat and Berrechid and their impact on the ground water table; in French]. [PhD