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Football clubs’ sports performance in the context of their market value and GDP in the European Union regions

, Comunidad Valenciana (Spain), Área Metropolitana de Lisboa , Norte (Portugal), Greater Manchester and Inner London East (England) achieved relatively high levels of sporting success at relatively low GDP. In the future, it seems sensible to explore this issue not only through the assessment of statistical dependence but also in terms of causation, through the use of spatial econometrics tools (e.g. spatial Durbin model). Acknowledgements This paper was prepared with the support provided by research grant APVV-17-0079 “Population Analysis and Forecast

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The determinants of travel mode choice: the case of Łódź, Poland

outcomes of these works suggest that discrete choice models are sufficient and proper tools for researching travel behaviour determinants. The literature and empirical studies regarding Poland are rather sparse. Among the few available, the work of Gadziński (2016) discusses the accessibility of public transport and its relationship with travel behaviour for the inhabitants of Poznań. The author uses a correlation coefficient in order to conclude that travel frequency and mode choice are linked with the level of urbanisation. The residents in suburbs tend to take

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A multidimensional analysis of spatial order in public spaces: a case study of the town Morąg, Poland

subsection 2.3), evaluation of the architectural, aesthetic, social, environmental and functional dimensions of spatial order in selected public spaces; the relevant procedure was developed based on the “Study of Municipal Public Spaces – Workshop 2014” of the Gdańsk Development Office, with several modifications (research tool – public space records), (details are presented in subsection 2.5), development of a map illustrating the spatial distribution and quality of the evaluated public spaces; a map illustrating the distribution of public spaces was developed based on

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Public spending mechanisms and gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the agricultural sector (1970–2016): Lessons for Nigeria from agricultural policy progressions in China

expenditure is regarded as an exogenous force that changes aggregate output ( Loizides & Vamvoukas, 2005 ). Keynesian thought suggests that a proactive fiscal policy is an important instrument for governments to stimulate economic activity and economic growth ( Barro, 1990 ). By increasing public spending and/or cutting taxes, governments can offset slower economic activity; hence, fiscal policy is viewed as a counter-cyclical policy tool that mitigates short-run fluctuations in output and employment (Zhang and Zou, 1998). In addition, the Keynesian hypothesis suggests that

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Urban and Rural Public Spaces: Development Issues and Qualitative Assessment

development process of any urban or rural area. It is an important tool in the process of reasonable spatial development, as it provides bases for defining the issues and potentials of the examined area. It is worth pointing to the key correlation that forms the basis for the practical application of the qualitative assessment results in the semantic differential method. If a given public space ranks highly and therefore has great potential, it can be considered worthy of intensified development in the future. Otherwise, if a public space ranks low and has many issues, it

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Climate change threats to a floral wedding: Threats of shifting phenology to the emerging South African wedding industry

venues that rely on flowers as one of the main attractions of their wedding experience. In order to achieve this, key informant interviews were used as a tool of gathering client and venue representative perceptions of climate change. In result, it appeared that respondents who either had beliefs in possible solutions or had experienced the effects of climate change first-hand, engaged with the topic. Phenological change through global and local literature were used in order to predict the future phenophases present at each wedding venue identified in this study, for

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Word Heritage Sites as soft tourism destinations – their impacts on international arrivals and tourism receipts

profit-making tool of the tourism (or heritage) industry, or a means of identity construction and self-aggrandisement for nation-states that may reflect elite interests. Such efforts to commoditise, politicise, or universalise heritage are seen as a threat to the authenticity of cultural and natural properties. While in the 1980s only 25% of site assessments considered tourism as a threat to heritage sites, this concern has considerably increased in the first decade of the 21st century, to 38% ( Schmutz & Elliott, 2016 ). Natural parks and nature reserve areas are

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National Identity Formation in Pakistan: Analysis of the Anti-Secular Narrative

’s chief Maulana Fazl-ur-Rahman said that he would oppose secularism ( The Express Tribune , 1 March 2016). Religious parties also use this anti-secular debate as a political tool against governments. For example, JI’s chief Sirajul Haq (2016a) criticised the Pakistan Muslim League – Nawaz (PML-N) government by saying that ‘the Prime Minister’s slogan of a liberal and secular Pakistan and [Pakistan Peoples Party] PPP leader Bilawal Bhutto’s move for a political alliance against the religious parties was an indication that whereas the Qibla [direction in which Muslims

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Deconstruction of Rural-Urban Divide in New Tools Prospective


In this essay importance will be given to the traditional and contemporary conception of the rural-urban divide. The traditional approach influenced by a hegemonic perspective has seen rural as urban residual by believing in the idea of a clear division between urban and rural, driven by demographic, cultural and economic factors. But today's empirical research in different fields, reflecting strong local and global dynamics, proves that the split between rural and urban is impossible. The change of these realities at the local and global scale has influenced the development of a thesis that reformulates the urban/rural relation under the perspective of a continuum, hybrid or liminal state. Today's urban research backs the idea that it is impossible to define once and for all what is rural and urban. Concrete cases taken in Europe and in Albania prove that the existence of realities with particular typology not only makes the existence of a general and universally accepted definition problematic, but also creates the need for a continuous, dynamic, and temporary re-definition of urban and rural.

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Being “Other” in Berlin: German Koreans, Multiraciality, and Diaspora

its use as a typological tool to point out grounded facts, this has given way to thinking about diaspora as a social process ( Anthias 1998 ; Alexander 2010 ; Kalra, Kaur and Hutnyk 2005 ) or a “stance” ( Alexander 2017 ) that offers a more critical theoretical engagement with difference. Understanding diaspora not just as a given category but as an active, self-fashioning and political “stance” becomes useful to understanding how participants in my study create and fashion diasporic affiliations and develop markers of identity in order to make certain claims

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