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Simona Cernea, Ciprian Blendea, Andrada Larisa Roiban and Theodora Benedek

lucru utilizate. Available at: 12. Laborator Synevo. Referintele specifice tehnologiei de lucru utilizate. Available at: 13. Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration). A New Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate. Ann Intern Med . 2009;150:604-612. 14. Durnin J, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from

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Xabier Artetxe-Gezuraga, Sara Maldonado-Martín, Bret G. Freemye and Jesús Cámara

competitive season, and 2) to determine the relationship between GE and V̇O 2max in young elite cyclists. Methods The present investigation is an observational study in which cyclists (n = 15) completed two laboratory-based progressive exercise tests during the competition phase (T1 = April; T2 = July) to assess selected physiological variables. Participants Fifteen male road U23 cyclists (20.1 ± 1.4 yrs, 177.5 ± 5.7 cm, 68.3 ± 6.2 kg, 45.2 ± 7.5 mm of six skinfolds), with a mean of two years of competitive experience at the national elite level (15 years), were

Open access

Matthew John Barlow, Joshua Rowe, Oliver Ruffle, Mark Davidson and John O’hara


Purpose. To evaluate the anthropometric profiles of female surfers and to identify whether any anthropometrical factors might predict competitive ranking. Secondly, to evaluate the activity profile of female competitive surfing with respect to environmental conditions using Global Positioning System (GPS) derived measures.

Methods. Following institutional ethical approval, 31 female competitive surfers underwent anthropometric assessment (mean age: 20.49, s = 5.32 years; stature: 165.2, s = 4.8 cm; body mass: 63.0, s = 6.8 kg). A subsample (n = 22) wore GPS units during competition at four different locations with varied surfing conditions.

Results. The mean somatotype values of the surfers were (Endo-Meso-Ecto) 4.06, 4.15, 2.01. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between the national ranking and triceps, medial calf skinfolds, sum of six skinfolds, body fat percentage, and sum of eight skinfolds. Percentage time sitting, paddling, and riding equalled 62.58 ± 10.18%, 30.70 ± 9.44%, and 6.73 ± 2.91%, respectively. The mean ride time, maximum ride time, total time spent riding, and total distance surfing were significantly correlated with the round of the competition. Furthermore, the number of rides, time spent riding, percentage of total distance surfing, and percentage time riding were correlated with heat placement (p < 0.05). Time spent sitting was associated with poorer heat placements (p < 0.01).

Conclusions. Body fat levels are associated with the national ranking in competitive female surfers. The number of waves ridden in a heat, the length of the rides, and activity levels were significantly related to heat placement and competition progression.

Open access

Valéria do Valle, Danielli de Mello, Marcos de Sá Fortes and Estélio Dantas

Effects of indoor cycling associated with diet on body composition and serum lipids

Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women.

Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 ± 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at various loads, 3 sessions weekly, every session lasting 45 min, combined with restricted diet (about 1200 kcal daily) for 12 weeks. The following variables were recorded: body height and mass, BMI, relative body fat content (from 7 skinfolds), fat-free mass, triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL).

Results: Significant increase in HDL and significant decreases in all other variables (except body height) were noted only in the experimental group.

Conclusions: Indoor cycling associated with restricted diet is an excellent option in controlling obesity and serum lipids.

Open access

Robert Malina, Krystyna Rożek, Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska, Jarosław Fugiel, Katarzyna Kochan and Jarosław Domaradzki

Growth and Functional Characteristics of Male Athletes 11-15 Years of Age

Purpose. To evaluate the growth and functional characteristics of male athletes 11-15 years of age. Basic procedures. The sample included 190 boys, 10.5-15.4 years, undergoing training of sport schools for track and field (136) and other sports (54). Height, weight, three skinfolds and % Fat (NIR) were measured. Grip strength, standing long jump, 2 kg medicine ball throw and 20 m sprint were tested. Track and field athletes were compared by discipline and to athletes in other sports using MANCOVA (multivariate analysis of covariance). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, body size and adiposity to the four functional indicators in two age groups, those 11-13 years and 14-15 years. Main findings. All variables except the standing long jump and 20 m sprint differed significantly by track and field discipline. Only height and ball throw differed among athletes in other sports. Track and field athletes had a significantly lower BMI and % Fat and performed better in the jump and sprint than athletes in other sports. Variance explained in each of the functional indicators was greater in younger than in older athletes. The sum of skinfolds and % Fat exerted a negative influence on all functional indicators. Conclusions. Trends in body size of male athletes attending sport schools were consistent with observations for youth male athletes in several sports. Height, weight and adiposity accounted for significant portions of variation in the four functional indicators in each age group, but the explained variance was higher in younger athletes.

Open access

Man Lidia, Pitea Ana Maria, Chinceșan Mihaela Ioana, Man A, Mărginean Oana and Baghiu Maria Despina


Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric and biochemical status of children with nutritional deficiency. Methods: We have conducted a prospective study on 226 children admitted in Pediatric Clinic I, divided into two groups: one group of 49 children with nutritional deficiency (body-mass-index < -2SD) and one control group (177 children). We have followed demographic data, anthropometric indices evaluated as standard deviations (weight, height, middle upper-arm circumference, tricipital skinfold), biochemical proteic status (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 IGF-1, albumin, total proteins). We also followed parameters of general nutritional biochemistry. Results: The mean age for underweight children was 5.8 years, lower than in the control group. The weight of the nutritional-deficient group was significantly lower than in the control group, unlike the height (p <0.001). We have also found significant differences in body-mass-index, middle upper-arm circumference and tricipital skinfold, all of them with low SDs in children with nutritional deficiency. Regarding the biochemical markers, we have found significantly higher values of transaminases (p <0.001) and lower IGF-1 (p = 0.02) and total proteins (p = 0.013) in nutritional-deficient group. Most IGF-1 values were in normal range in both groups, but with a higher percent of low values in nutritional deficient children (37.5% vs 14.2%, p = 0.0046). There were no significant differences in height, albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels between the two groups. Conclusions: The anthropometric measurements are the most precise methods in evaluating the nutritional status. Among the studied biochemical markers, IGF-1, total proteins and transaminases are correlated with nutritional deficiencies

Open access

Miran Kondrič, Ognjen Uljević, Goran Gabrilo, Dean Kontić and Damir Sekulić

General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players

The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players.

The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world's best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4×50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN).

ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4×50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN.

Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position.

Open access

Enrico Puggina, Dalmo Machado, Gustavo Borges and Valdir Barbanti

Changes in Body Composition after Endurance Training and Triathlon Competition

Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of training and triathlon competition on anthropometry, plasmatic free fatty acids (FFA) and hydration status. Methods. Twelve male triathletes were submitted to a 12-week training program to compete in the "32° Pirassununga Half Ironman". Anthropometric measurements such as skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) as well as urine and blood samples were collected at three intervals: at the beginning of the training program (M-1), before (M-2) and after competition (M-3). FFA were analyzed using a NEFA-C kit. Urine pH and density was determined using reagent tapes and a manual refractometer. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer post-test (p < 0.05). Results. No differences were found for body mass (M-1 = 71.83, M-2 = 74.22, M-3 = 72.15 kg), percent body fat using skinfolds (M-1 = 10.98, M-2 = 10.92, M-3 = 10.40%), urine density (M-1 = 1.02, M-2 = 1.01, M-3 = 1.02) and urine pH (M-1 = 6.00, M-2 = 5.92, M-3 = 5.35). For BIA and FFA, differences were found after competition (BIA: M-1 = 13.54, M-2 = 13.91, M-3 = 9.45%; FFA: M-1 = 0.16, M-2 = 0.15, M-3 = 1.69 mEq/L). Conclusions. These results illustrate the effects of training and competition on body composition and FFA mobilization. Additionally, after five hours of effort, no evidence of dehydration was found after the race.

Open access

Paweł Tomaszewski, Jan Gajewski and Joanna Lewandowska

Somatic Profile of Competitive Sport Climbers

Since rock climbing grows in popularity, the number of the respective scientific reports increases. However, those concerning anthropometric profile of elite climbers are scarce and inconsistent, thus the aim of the study was to describe the anthropometric characteristics of competitive sport climbers. Male rock climbers (n = 21) aged 17 - 29 years took part in the study; their climbing ability ranged from 6b to 8c in the French scale. Body height, body mass, arm span, length and girths of both extremities, shoulder and pelvis widths, as well as thickness of 5 skinfolds were determined. From these, body mass index (BMI), body fat content and selected anthropometric indices were calculated. Data collected for climbers were compared with those of untrained students (n = 165) of Warsaw Technical University. Although no between-group differences were found for body height, body mass, BMI or body fat content, the climbers exhibited significantly (p<0.001) lower pelvis-to-shoulder ratio, longer lower extremities (p<0.05), and greater arm length and arm span (p<0.001) compared to untrained students. The results of this study do not support the view that climbers are small in stature and of low body mass. It seems that the core of the issue is not in body size but rather in specific body proportions and this may be of great importance in selecting subjects to competitive sport climbing.

Open access

Tijana Purenović-Ivanović and Ružena Popović


Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies.