), pp. 43-57.
4. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (2008). Learn Canada 2020. Calgary : Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, 3 p.
5. Department for Children, Schools and Families. (2008). 21st Century Schools: a World-class Education for Every Child. Nottingham : DCSF Publications, 51 p.
6. General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland. (2007). Teaching: the Reflective Profession. Incorporating the Northern Ireland Teacher Competencies. Belfast : General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland, 52 p
., Heinlik, L. & Clarice, H. (Eds.), The Critical Link 3: Interpreters in the Community. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, p. 99-112.
4. Chan, 2010 Chan, A. L. J. (2010). Perceived benefits of translator certification to stakeholders in the translation profession: a survey of vendor managers. Across Languages and Cultures. Volume 11, Number 1, p. 93-113. Retrieved 25.06.2014 from: Universitat Rovira I Virgili URV Library, DOI: 10.1556/Acr.11.2010.1.6.
5. CTTIC [Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council]. (2011). Candidate
дополнительного образования взросльїх в Великобританиии [Development of further adult education in UK], Thesis for a Candidate’s Degree in Pedagogical Sciences. Volgograd, p. 179 (in Russian).
13. Шевчук, C. C. (2009). Інноваційні підходи до навчання професії: Методичний посібник [Innovative approaches to the teaching profession: Toolkit], Донецьк : ІПО ІПП УМО АПН України, p. 117 (in Ukrainian).
14.Якимович, T. Д. (2007). Як сформувати та оцінити інтелектуальні професійні вміння [How to form and evaluate intelligent professional skills]. In
1. Achleitner, D., Wallne, J. (2009). Die Lehre. Duale Berufsausbildung in Osterreich. Moderne Ausbildung mit Zukunft [Teaching. Dual Vocational Education in Austria. Modern Education in the Future]. Retrieved 12.11.2016 from : https://www.bmb.gv.at/schulen/bo/umsetzung/dielehre_18624.pdf?4k99xc>.
2. Bundesinstitut fur Berufsbildung (BIBB) [Federal Institute for Vocational Education]. (2011). Liste der Produktions- und Dienstleistungsberufe im dualen System [The List of Production and Service Sector Professions in
, J., Ziaziun, I., Nyczkało, N. (Eds). Kształcenie zawodowe: pedagogika i psychologia, No 1, Częstochowa-Kijów, p. 69-87 (in Polish).
10.Wilsz, J. (2001). Psychologizowana wersja koncepcji stałych indywidualnych cech osobowości i jej wykorzystanie przy wyborze zawodu [Psychological version of the personality’s constant individual traits concept and its use in choosing a profession]. In : Lewowicki, T., Wilsz, J., Ziaziun, I., Nyczkało, N. (Eds.). Kształcenie zawodowe: pedagogika i psychologia, No 3, Częstochowa-Kijów, p. 405-415 (in Polish). prol
After the economic recession in the nineties, the Finnish government followed world trends and built national competitiveness policy. Finland has developed a high quality of teachers’ work along with high social trust to this profession at every level of education. Teachers’ profession is as prestigious as the profession of doctors or attorneys. The article reveals the relationship between the change in Finland’s education policy, so called Alternative Reform Movement and the Finnish culture of teaching.
Liudmila Dulksnienė, Sigutė Stankevičienė, Irmantas Ramanauskas and Laima Šarkauskienė
The changing approach to a physician’s profession brings about changes in the professional education and training of family physicians as well as in their continuous qualification improvement. For this reason, during the reformation of Lithuania’s primary healthcare system, not only alterations in family physicians’ activity, but also the changes in their education and training and the updating and improvement of their curriculum were seen as priority areas.
The aim of the study was to reveal and compare resident physicians’ attitude to the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians based on the traditional and problem-based learning systems at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (subsequently, LSMU).
The study on the professional education and training of family physicians was conducted in 2005 and in 2015. The quantitative study was carried out via a written questionnaire survey. The studied population consisted of resident physicians who were studying family medicine at the LSMU.
The analysis of the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians showed that resident physicians acquired sufficient knowledge and skills in the fields of disease diagnostics and treatment, qualification improvement, disease prevention, and teamwork organization. Resident physicians had insufficient skills to adapt to new conditions of activity, and their studies did not develop creative thinking. The problem-based learning (PBL) system helps future family physicians to develop essential competences and to acquire knowledge and skills required for the career of a family physician.
Despite the abundance of career education interventions and information on career opportunities, the search for information process is not necessarily performed very thoroughly, and thus persons, choosing a profession, do it in the simplest way, being unable to properly explain their decisions afterwards. In choosing a career, it is crucial to think through potential alternatives and support them by arguments. That is why it is important to discuss the process of reasoning, which evolves coherently and can be characterised by certain elements. The following research question was raised in this study: “How the reasoning of pupils’ on career choice is distinguished at a comprehensive school?” In this case the main accent of the research is focused on the situation of career choice reasoning at Lithuanian gymnasiums. The research aim was to disclose the phenomenon of the reasoning on pupils’ career choice at a comprehensive school. For this article, the data have been collected by methods of literature review and individual semi-structured interviewing. Qualitative content analysis has been performed while processing the information acquired from semi-structured interviews. Findings from literature review showed that the reasoning is assessed as conscious, aim-oriented process of conclusion drawing, by means of which it is pursued to evaluate alternatives, solve problems and make decisions by referring to certain information, facts and features, personal characteristics and beliefs. Reasoning based on stimuli emergence is the aim-oriented process, functions of which are based on information, knowledge and experience. This needs mental abilities, language. Reasoning is related to personal inclination and habits. Empirical findings revealed that the phenomenon of career choice at school is not unanimously understood and does not have clear structure. The character of pupils’ reasoning is closely related to emergence of certain stimuli. The external stimuli that induce the reasoning on one’s career choice, which were mostly emphasized by the informants, allow considering that here the school educational environment plays the important role.
The concept of professional identity involves professional suitability, training, professional choice, professional image, professional plan, career awareness and motivation. Students of social pedagogy as future professionals have their self-conception which depends on the level of professional identity the students have achieved: diffuse identity, self-determination without debate, moratorium and the identity achieved. Each level reflects the identity of a certain combination of investigation and resolution of the undertaking. However, professional identity is not only an objectively perceived phenomenon; every subjective perception leads to one’s own career in the context of human evolution, social life, economic conditions, learning experience.
Professional identity, which has been understood as professional roles, is one of the most important factors of career success and satisfaction. It is based on personal characteristics, values and experience. The profession of social pedagogues is specific, because they work with people and, in particular, socially sensitive. Therefore, the students of social pedagogy must have the inclination to work with people. Social pedagogues are responsible for social well-being and, therefore, career decisions of students in social pedagogy must be self-directed and adequate. Thus, the higher education professionals providing career guidance, mentors and teachers should recognize whether these programs are relevant to young people at an early stage of the professional identity. Future social pedagogues must also understand the characteristics of the formation of professional identity of a social pedagogue. Therefore, this article addresses the following research questions: what career decisions were taken when choosing studies in social pedagogy? How and what appropriate level of professional identity was reached during the period of studies at university?
The aim of the paper is to present changes undergone by the Polish education system after the accession to the European Union. In the article the changes are collated together with the main and distinctive trends which had existed in Europe before the accession and the ones that were introduced subsequently. The article shows that the tendency to unify the member states’ education systems is non-existent in the European Union. It also points out that the importance attached to education by the EU member states has not been as considerable as the importance given to economy. The paper is divided into two main parts. The main objective of the first part is to describe the decision-making process in the member states (as far as the common education policy is concerned) and its result, which was the report stating that education was considered to be a peculiar area of social politics and as such required separate arrangements and decisions. Therefore, there are neither specific procedures nor integration requirements for the associated and associating countries. However, as far as Poland is concerned, during the accession process the country was obliged to meet the expected standards, in particular the standards in the reform of the education structure and curriculum. The second part of the paper comprises the analysis of Polish activity in the following fields:
–– lowering the age of the compulsory education commencement,
–– reforming the structure of the education system and curriculum,
–– practising teaching profession.
The article further elaborates at length on the significant factor in the process of democratization of education, which is parents’ involvement in the functioning of a school.