Search Results

41 - 50 of 359 items :

  • pharmacokinetics x
Clear All
Delayed Behavioral Effects of SH–I–048A, a Novel Nonselective Positive Modulator of Gabaa Receptors, After Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats

the dose used for protracted treatment. Pharmacol Rep 2012, 64:1116-25. 28. Friedman H, Abernethy DR, Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI: The pharmacokinetics of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam in rat brain and plasma. Psychopharmacology 1986, 88:267-70. 29. Samardžić J, Puškaš L, Obradović M, Lazić-Puškaš D, Obradović D: Antidepressant effects of an inverse agonist selective for α5 GABA-A receptors in the rat forced swim test, Acta Vet (Beograd) 2014, 64(1):52-60.

Open access
Cell proliferation assay – method optimisation for in vivo labeling of DNA in the rat forestomach

bromodeoxycytidine in the mouse and rat. Cancer Res 1962, 22:254-265. 12. Matiašová A, Ševc J, Mikeš J, Jendželovský R, Daxnerová Z, Fedoročko P: Flow cytometric determination of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine pharmacokinetics in blood serum after intraperitoneal administration to rats and mice. Histochem Cell Biol 2014, 142:703-712. 13. deFazio A, Leary JA, Hedley DW, Tattersall MH: Immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cells in vivo. J Histochem Cytochem 1987, 35:571-577. 14. Kaneko M, Morimura K, Nishikawa T, Wanibuchi H, Takada N, Osugi H, Kinoshita H

Open access
Antidepressant effects of an inverse agonist selective for α5 GABA-A receptors in the rat forced swim test

. Sieghart W, Sperk G: Subunit composition, distribution and function of GABAA receptor subtypes. Curr Top Med Chem 2002, 2:795-816. 11. Atack JR, Pike A, Clarke A, Cook SM, Sohal B, McKernan RM, Dawson GR: Rat pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a sustained release formulation of the GABAA alpha5-selective compound L-655,708. Drug Metab Dispos 2006, 34:887-893. 12. Chambers MS, Atack JR, Broughton HB, Collinson N, Cook S, Dawson GR, Hobbs SC, Marshall G, Maubach KA, Pillai GV, Reeve AJ, MacLeod AM: Identifi cation of a novel, selective

Open access
Morphological and pharmacokinetic properties of oral solid dietary supplements containing plant extracts

Summary

Introduction: Dietary supplements are a good way to supplement the deficiency of certain micronutrients and organic components (therapeutic agents) in human body. They are most often available in concentrated form as tablets, capsules, powder or liquid.

Objective: To investigate morphological parameters and the pharmaceutical availability of coated tablets – dietary supplements – that contain selected pharmacopeial titrated dry plant extracts.

Methods: Testing of the effective time of the tablet surface erosion was performed in model acceptor fluids using pharmacopeial methods in static (Erweka apparatus) and dynamic (unlimited diffusion method) conditions. Furthermore, morphological parameters of tablets (the original shape of an ellipse) as well as their hardness were determined.

Results: The effective erosion time was determined by conductometric method using carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (NaCMC) contained in the tablet. The content of gum arabic and NaCMC in the tablet testifies that the granulate was produced using the “wet granulation” technique which resulted in high hardness of original, esthetic, elliptical tablets and in prolonged disintegration time (erosion).

Conclusions: The used excipients: gum arabic and NaCMC for the production of the tested tablets containing selected dry plant extracts result in their high hardness. The tested dietary supplements are characterized by esthetic design, original shape, and prolonged disintegration time which affects the pharmaceutical availability.

Open access
Preoperative nutrition and postoperative liver function: a correlation study of pediatric living donor liver transplantation

glycemia in this study was relatively stable, which indicates that the grafts of the living donors were of higher quality than the DCD grafts. Table 2 also shows that the tacrolimus concentration and its standard deviation were relatively high during the first 7 days and then reached an acceptable level. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive drug, has a narrow therapeutic window and large pharmacokinetic variability with a poor correlation between the drug-dosing regimen and blood concentration. 16 Therefore, more studies are necessary to decide on an ideal dose and

Open access
Canine Babesiosis: Where Do We Stand?

the influence of parasitaemia. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1996, 67:77-82. 186. Suzuki K, Wakabayashi H, Takahashi M, Fukushima K, Yabuki A, Endo Y: A possible treatment strategy and clinical factors to estimate the treatment response in Babesia gibsoni infection. J Vet Med Sci 2007, 69:563-568. 187. Sakuma M, Setoguchi A, Endo Y: Possible emergence of drug-resistant variants of Babesia gibsoni in clinical cases treated with atovaquone and azithromycin. J Vet Intern Med 2009, 23:493-498. 188. Miller DM, Swan GE, Lobetti RG, Jacobson LS: The pharmacokinetics

Open access
Analytical Procedure for the Determination of Tulathromycin in Swine Plasma

References 1. Anon. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Center for Veterinary Medicine: Guidance for Industry, Bioanalytical Method Validation, 2001. 2. Anon. European Medicines Agency (EMEA): Guideline on bioanalytical method validation, 2011. 3. Benchaoui H.A., Nowakowski M., Sherington J., Rowan T.G., Sunderland S.J.: Pharmacokinetics and lung tissue concentrations of tulathromycin in swine. J Vet Pharmacol

Open access
The Effects of Cisplatin and Its PT(II) Analogue on Oxidative Stress of Isolated Rat Heart/ Efekti Cisplatine I PT(II) Analoga Cisplatine Na Oksidacioni Stres Izolovanog Srca Pacova

Abstract

To date, numerous platinum (II) complexes have been successfully used in the treatment of different types of cancer. Therapeutic platinum complexes are different in terms of their structure, chemical reactivity, solubility, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The aim of our research was the evaluation of cardiotoxicity of dichloro-(ethylendiamine) platinum (II) in a model of isolated rat heart using the Langedorff technique. Oxidative stress was assessed by determination of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and nitric oxide levels from coronary venous effluent. All reagents were perfused at increasing concentrations from 10-8 to 10-4 M for 30 minutes. In this paper, we report that substances administered at higher doses did not induce dose-dependent effects on oxidative stress markers. The results of this research may be of great interest for future studies in this area. There are many novel platinum compounds that had previously demonstrated antitumour activity, and these types of experiments in our study can assist in the examination of their cardiotoxicity. These results could be helpful for understanding dose-dependent side effects of existing and novel platinum compounds

Open access
Combination of Ropivacaine and Lidocaine for Long Lasting Locoregional Anesthesia

References 1. Cuvillon P, Nouvellon E, Ripart J, Boyer JC, Dehour L, Mahamat A, et al. A comparison of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine, ropivacaine (with epinephrine) and their equal volume mixtures with lidocaine used for femoral and sciatic nerve blocks: a double-blind randomized study. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:641-649. 2. Ye F, Feng YX, Lin JJ. A ropivacaine-lidocaine combination for caudal blockade in haemorrhoidectomy. J Int Med Res 2007;35:307-313. 3. Hansen TG. Ropivacaine: A

Open access
Development of a Capillary Electrophoresis Method for the Separation of Fluoroquinolone Derivatives in Acidic Background Electrolyte

Abstract

Introduction: Antibacterial quinolones class comprises a series of synthetic antibacterial agents, following the model of nalidixic acid. Because of their common 6-fl uorosubtituent on the quinolone ring, fluroquinolones are the most potent analogues with extended spectrum of activity and great pharmacokinetic properties. The applicability of capillary zone electrophoresis for the separation of fl uoroquinolones in acidic background electrolyte has been studied, our aim being the development of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the simultaneous separation of six fl uoroquinolones and also to optimize the analytical conditions. The six studied fl uoroquinolones were ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin.

Material and methods: Preliminary, we studied the electrophoretic behavior of six fluoroquinolones in an acidic pH, which highlighted the possibility of developing a separation method in this area of pH. Electrophoretic parameters infl uencing separation performance were studied and optimized.

Results: A fast and reliable method has been developed, using a background electrolyte containing 100 mM phosphoric acid and the following conditions: applied voltage: + 25 kV, temperature: 20°C, injection pressure 30 mbar - 5 sec, UV detection at 280 nm, capillary: 60 cm (52 cm effective length) x 50 μm, analyte concentration: 167 μg/ml. The separation of the studied fl uoroquinolones was achieved in less than 8 minutes.

Conclusions: Capillary zone electrophoresis using an acidic background electrolyte proved to be an efficient tool in the separation of fluoroquinolones from different generations. Also the proposed methods are particular environment-friendly replacement and improvement of a common high performance liquid chromatography determination with rapid analysis time without using any organic solvents.

Open access