References Aldwin CM, Stress, coping, and development. Guilfod Press. New York, 1994. Aldwin CM, Revenson TA. Does coping help? Reexamination of the relation between coping and mental health. J Pers Soc Psychol, 1987. 53: 337-348. Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, Van Beurden E, Beard JR. Perceived sports competence meditates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment. The Int J of behavioral nutrition and
Nobuki Ishii and Saori Osaka
Despina Klonari, Konstantinos Pastiadis, Georgios Papadelis and George Papanikolaou
The present study was carried out to determine whether recorded musical tones played at various pitches on a clarinet, a flute, an oboe, and a trumpet are perceived as being equal in loudness when presented to listeners at the same A-weighted level. This psychophysical investigation showed systematic effects of both instrument type and pitch that could be related to spectral properties of the sounds under consideration. Level adjustments that were needed to equalize loudness well exceeded typical values of JNDs for signal level, thus confirming the insufficiency of A-weighting as a loudness predictor for musical sounds. Consequently, the use of elaborate computational prediction is stressed, in view of the necessity for thorough investigation of factors affecting the perception of loudness of musical sounds.
Robert Kupczyński, Anna Budny, Kinga Śpitalniak and Ewa Tracz
, adrenocorticotropic hormone, serotonin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline serum concentrations in relation to disease and stress in the horse. Vet. Sci., 93: 103-107. Ballou M.A., Sutherland M.A., Brooks T.A., Hulbert L.E., Davis B.L., Cobb C.J. (2013). Administration of anesthetic and analgesic prevent the suppression of many leukocyte responses following surgical castration and physical dehorning. Vet. Immunol. Immunop., 151: 285-293. Blessing W.W. (2003). Lower brainstem pathways regulating sympathetically mediated changes in cutaneous blood flow
Paweł Łupkowski and Marta Gierszewska
The main aim of the presented study was to check whether the well-established measures concerning the attitude towards humanoid robots are good predictors for the uncanny valley effect. We present a study in which 12 computer rendered humanoid models were presented to our subjects. Their declared comfort level was cross-referenced with the Belief in Human Nature Uniqueness (BHNU) and the Negative Attitudes toward Robots that Display Human Traits (NARHT) scales. Subsequently, there was no evidence of a statistical significance between these scales and the existence of the uncanny valley phenomenon. However, correlations between expected stress level while human-robot interaction and both BHNU, as well as NARHT scales, were found. The study covered also the evaluation of the perceived robots’ characteristic and the emotional response to them.
Narrowing definitions of dependency for elderly family reunification in Finland
This article explores how the concept of dependency is used when scrutinising residence permit applicants of the elderly who fall into the category of “other family members” for family reunion. Through an analysis of interviews with immigration officers, as well as Finnish and European Union (EU) legal documents, the article shows that contestations of the concept of dependency become part of bordering practices. Bordering thus enters the everyday lives of transnational families with elderly family members in the form of investigating health conditions and the availability of care facilities. The ageing body of the elderly becomes a site of bordering. In opposition to the state individualistic system of a Nordic welfare state that aims at independency from the family, immigration regulations actually stress family dependencies. Only if immigration authorities perceive the applicant’s dependency on the sponsor to be high enough, the applicant can become part of the Finnish welfare system.
Pilar Avello, Joan Carles Mora and Carmen Pérez-Vidal
References Avello, P., Lara, A.R., Mora, J.C., and Pérez-Vida, C. In press: The impact of Study Abroad and Length of Stay on Phonological Development in Speech Production. Proceedings of the 30th Aesla Conference , Universitat de Lleida. Avello, P. 2011: Measuring Perceived Pronunciation Gains in Study Abroad: Methodological Issues. Paper presented at the 29th Aesla Conference , Universidad de Salamanca. Barron, A. 2006: Learning to Say 'You' in German: The Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Competence in a Study
Szymon Pasiut, Katarzyna Juda, Elżbieta Mirek and Jadwiga Szymura
Introduction: Fatigue is one of the three major symptoms affecting about 70-90% of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, ICD-10 G35), and a predominant symptom in nearly 50% of the patients. Fatigue is defined as a subjective feeling of lack of energy to start and continue an activity, which is not related to depression, or muscle weakening. There are similarities and differences between the fatigue experienced by healthy individuals, and the fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. In both instances, fatigue becomes more intense as a result of stress, or physical and mental effort. Fatigue usually subsides after a rest, or a good night’s sleep. In MS patients, fatigue can be caused by even light physical, or mental exertion, and it takes longer than normal to go away. Rest, or sleep do not reduce its intensity.
Aim of the study: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of a two-week rehabilitation programme on the perceived level of fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.
Material and methods: The study included 32 patients with clinically confirmed MS who underwent a comprehensive 2-week rehabilitation programme. The study was conducted at the “Ostoja” Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Wola Batorska from 15 July to 13 October 2013. It was based on a self-designed questionnaire which contained the basic patient data (age, sex), information on duration of the disease, type of MS the patient had been diagnosed with, as well as the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, and the Fatigue Severity Scale. The respondents were assessed twice: on the first and last day of their stay in the Centre. The statistical analysis was carried out using the STATISTICA 10.0 software.
Results: The analysis revealed a statistically highly significant dependence between the two-week rehabilitation programme and the perceived level of fatigue. This means that the perceived level of fatigue in MS patients was significantly reduced as a result of the rehabilitation programme used.
Conclusions: After the two-week rehabilitation programme, the perceived level of fatigue in MS patients significantly decreased. The two-week rehabilitation programme significantly reduced the number of patients suffering from chronic fatigue symptoms as assessed on the Fatigue Severity Scale.
Krzysztof Gorlach, Marta Klekotko and Piotr Nowak
The paper is focused on the issue of culture and its connections to rural developments. It was based on the assumption that the culture has various impacts on rural communities` life, as well as, it has been present in various ways in functioning and changes that might be observed in rural areas. In our opinion, such a perspective should be presented in a more detailed way in order to stress the multiple and various impact of cultural issues on economic and social transformations in rural areas. Therefore, we divided our paper into three consecutive parts. In the first one, we discussed the multi-dimensional image of culture, and its role in human development. In the second one, we discussed some changes in the mechanisms of rural development, perceived as moving from the traditional to the contemporary one. We wanted to stress that culture seems to be an important part of the latter one. The last part of our considerations brought some empirical evidence from Poland focused on the role of culture in rural developments showing, at the same type, some examples of this new mechanism of rural development.
Dragana Milutinović, Boris Golubović, Nina Brkić and Bela Prokeš
stressful work characteristics. J Adv Nurs 2003;43:197-205. Foxall M, Zimmerman L, Standley R, Captain BB. A comparison of frequency and source of nursing job stress perceived by intensive care, hospice and medical-surgical nurses. J Adv Nurs 1990;15:577-84. Milutinović D, Grujić N, Jocić N. Identifikacija i analiza stresogenih faktora na radnom mestu medicinskih sestara - komparativna studija četiri klinička odeljenja [Identification and analysis of stress factors at nursing workplace. A comparative study of four
The objectives of this review paper are (I) the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II) the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III) the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of civilization and improvement in health-related physical fitness.
Based on previous studies, only dynamic Sun Salutations of yoga exercises (Suryanamaskar) are moderate-intensity physical activity, and therefore must be performed at least 5 days a week in 30 min duration or 150 min per week meet the recommendation. Hatha yoga meets the recommendations regarding types of exercise, because it includes poses improving muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and balance. Dynamic sequences of Sun Salutation can be regarded as aerobic exercises. Regular hatha yoga training may be an intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of diseases of civilization. Yoga exercises were found to produce reductions in diastolic blood pressure; to improve cardiorespiratory system and metabolic parameters; to correct posture; to reduce back pain; to prevent obesity; to lower blood glucose level; to be beneficial for stress and depression; to relieve perceived pain; and to improve functional fitness and perceived quality of life. Hatha yoga also improves physical fitness, especially in regards to health-related fitness.
In the context of the recommendation and reported benefits, hatha yoga is the health-related physical activity.