In order to examine the cellular viability post encapsulation, sections of 1 mm thickness were taken from the centre of alginate discs containing 3T3 cells using a sterilized blade. The sections were immersed in 0.2 μL calceinacetoxymethylester (calcein-AM) for 15 min and 2.5 μL propidiumiodide (PI) for 5 min in S-DMEM at 37 o C. The calcein-AM was cleaved to form calcein in the presence of esterases in live cells resulting in photon emission at a wavelength around 515 nm. In the case of dead-cells, the PI penetrated the cell and nuclear membrane
Uwe Pliquett, Dieter Frense, Markus Schönfeldt, Christian Frätzer, Yong Zhang, Brian Cahill, Michael Metzen, Andreas Barthel, Thomas Nacke and Dieter Beckmann
plasma) surrounded by an insulating membrane (plasma membrane). The extracellular space is filled with electrolyte as well, but may have a very distinct conductivity with respect to the conductivity of the cytoplasm. Although the cytoplasm contains membrane systems (e.g. endoplasmatic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nuclear membrane or other membrane enclosed organelles) a pure resistive model for this part is often sufficient for a practical approach [ 29 ; 30 ].
Since intact cell membranes show a low conductance, the low frequency current (f < 10 kHz) will
Nicolai Todorov Dolchinkov and Nicolai Bonev Nichev
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The Council of Ministers
 Nuclear spy ring consists of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Harry Gold, Klaus Fuchs, David and Ruth Greenglass
 Kim Plilby
 Dangle - A person sent by the intelligence agency of his or her own country who approaches an intelligence agency in the hope of being recruited as a spy so as to allow a double agent operation
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