Zbigniew Kaczmarek, Piotr Gajewski, Andrzej Mocek, Wojciech Owczarzak and Bartłomiej Glina
The paper presents the characteristics of selected physical, chemical, and water properties of four mineral arable soils characterized with heavy and very heavy texture. Soil samples from genetic horizons of black earths from areas near Kętrzyn, Gniew and Kujawy, and alluvial soils from Żuławy were used. The following properties were determined in the samples of undisturbed and disturbed structure: texture, particle density, bulk density, porosity, natural and hygroscopic moistures, maximal hygroscopic capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, potential of water bonding in soil, total and readily available water, total retention in the horizon of 0–50 cm, drainage porosity, content of organic carbon and total nitrogen Parent rocks of these soils were clays, silts and loams of various origin. High content of clay fraction strongly influenced the values of all the analyzed properties. All the examined soils had high content of organic carbon and total nitrogen and reaction close to neutral or alkaline. High content of mineral and organic colloids and, what follows, beneficial state of top horizons’ structure, determined – apart from heavy texture – low soil bulk density and high porosity. The investigated soils were characterized by high field water capacity and wide scopes of total and readily available water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was low and characteristic to heavy mineral arable soils. The parameter which influenced the variability of analyzed parameters most was texture.
Katarzyna Bandurska, Piotr Krupa, Agnieszka Berdowska and Magdalena Marczak
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Apatite is a natural mineral from the group of phosphate minerals. It originates primarily in rocks and converted limestones. It is also one of the few minerals produced and used by microeconomic systems. Due to its low solubility in water and high sorption capacity, apatite is a suitable sorbent for heavy metals and radionuclides removal from aqueous radioactive waste. Increasing amount of radioactive waste (RAW) has a negative impact on human health as well as on the environment. Production of RAW is constantly increasing because of the use of nuclear energy as well as by the development of nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to study the effect of pH and various anions on the sorption of pertechnetate anions from aqueous solution to Sn-Apatite. Sn-Apatite samples used in the experiment were prepared by the wet precipitation method and adsorption of 99mTc was monitored by the radioisotope indication method. Sorption experiments were performed using the batch method. It was found that the sorption percentage was higher than 90 % in all Sn-Apatite samples and the dissociation constant, KD, indicated high affinity of pertechnetate anions to the solid Sn-Apatite particles. The presence of competing anions did not significantly influence the ability of Sn-Apatite materials to adsorb 99mTcO4 - from aqueous solutions.
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According to national and international laboratory methods, the density of soil samples is determined by pycnometer in heated samples crushed by ultrasound. In mineral soils, the elementary unit of density is represented by a mineral grain of quartz, granite, andesite, etc. On the other hand, in organic soils, the elementary unit is represented by a leaf (or just a part of it), needles, stems and roots. Heating of the mineral grain causes its release from the soil aggregate. Organic parts of the soil are losing air vacuoles by heat treatment while in the same time, carbohydrates, proteins, oils and resins create new chemicals which are heavier than water. That is a reason why density determination of litter subhorizons in forest soils needs to have different rules in comparison with mineral soil samples. Samples with more than 50 volume per cent of organic matter are not treated by heat and do not decompose. In case of high mineral soil content, mineral parts are removed from the sample and their density is determined. The final density is based on mathematically processed data.
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