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Vladan Vukašinović, Dragan Strelić, Saša Vajić and Violeta Šiljak

Summary

Observing the development of physical training classes of the Army throughout history, from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Armed Forces of today, it can be said that, in addition to other program segments, gymnastics was the fundamental factor of physical exercise in the overall process of practical and military training. This development was accompanied by frequent changes in the realization of physical training (program contents, number of hours, methodical procedure, etc.), which again depended on the needs of the army, in other words, on the objective of the training - which was aimed at achieving optimal physical abilities for the performance of military duties in all circumstances. The first written facts about the use of gymnastics in the Army of the Principality of Serbia originate from the period of the founding of the Artillery School (in 1850, a predecessor of the Military Academy), where the basis of physical training consisted of the following contents: fighting, gymnastics, swimming, fencing and riding. A little later, in 1867, within the physical training, gymnastic exercises were performed and were the forerunners of today's morning workout, which is even today an integral part of the training of members of the Army of Serbia. The problem of this research work relates to the implementation of the development of gymnastics in the process of training from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Army.

The aim of this paper is to indicate the permanent implementation of the contents of gymnastics in the educational process of military structures as well as temporary changes according to the specific requirements of the upgrading of military and professional-specialized skills of military personnel in view of research of relevant materials and data collected. A historical method was used in this study. Research results show the importance and role of gymnastics as a basis of physical exercise for the improvement of the physical abilities of soldiers as the basic element of combat readiness.

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Wiesław Pięta and Aleksandra Pięta

Czech and Polish Table Tennis Players of Jewish Origin in International Competition (1926-1957)

The beginnings of the 18th century marked the birth of Jewish sport. The most famous athletes of those days were boxers, such as I. Bitton, S. Eklias, B. Aaron, D. Mendoga. Popular sports of this minority group included athletics, fencing and swimming. One of the first sport organizations was the gymnastic society Judische Turnverein Bar Kocha (Berlin - 1896).

Ping-pong as a new game in Europe developed at the turn of the 20th century. Sport and organizational activities in England were covered by two associations: the Ping Pong Association and the Table Tennis Association; they differed, for example, in the regulations used for the game. In 1902, Czeski Sport (a Czech Sport magazine) and Kurier Warszawski (Warsaw's Courier magazine) published first information about this game. In Czech Republic, Ping-pong became popular as early as the first stage of development of this sport worldwide, in 1900-1907. This was confirmed by the Ping-pong clubs and sport competitions. In Poland, the first Ping-pong sections were established in the period 1925-1930. Czechs made their debut in the world championships in London (1926). Poles played for the first time as late as in the 8th world championships in Paris (1933). Competition for individual titles of Czech champions was started in 1927 (Prague) and in 1933 in Poland (Lviv).

In the 1930s, Czechs employed an instructor of Jewish descent from Hungary, Istvan Kelen (world champion in the 1929 mixed games, studied in Prague). He contributed to the medal-winning success of Stanislaw Kolar at the world championships. Jewish players who made history in world table tennis included Trute Kleinowa (Makkabi Brno) - world champion in 1935-1937, who survived imprisonment in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp, Alojzy Ehrlich (Hasmonea Lwów), the three-time world vice-champion (1936, 1937, 1939), also survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Ivan Andreadis (Sparta Praga), nine-time world champion, who was interned during World War II (camp in Kleinstein near Krapkowice).

Table tennis was a sport discipline that was successfully played by female and male players of Jewish origins. They made powerful representations of Austria, Hungary, Romania and Czech Republic and provided the foundation of organizationally strong national federations.

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Economising Early Prints on Fight Books by Multiple Using Movable Half Page Woodcuts.

Insights into the layout work on the illustrations of Andre Paurnfeindt’s Fight Book of 1516 published by Hieronymus Vietor

Matthias Johannes Bauer

(Nordstedt: Books on Demand, 2014), without page numbering. Bauer, Matthias Johannes “Rezension”, Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur , 133 (2011), 510-4. Bauer, Matthias Johannes, “Teaching How to Fight with Encrypted Words: Linguistic Aspects of German Fencing and Wrestling Treatises of the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times”, in Daniel Jaquet, et al., eds., Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books. Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe (14th-17th Centuries) (Leiden: Brill, 2016), p. 47-61 Bergner, Ute, and

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Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Amit Agrawal, Marticela Cabeza-Morales, Nasly Zabaleta-Churio, Willem Guillermo Calderon-Miranda, Alfonso Pacheco-Hernandez, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra and Andres M Rubiano

review of CT morphology, complications, and management. Surg Neurol 1999;51:617-620. 4.Shahpurkar VV, Agrawal A. Fatal orbitocranial injury by fencing and spectacle sidebar. Indian journal of ophthalmology 2008;56:345-346. 5.Agrawal A, Pratap A, Agrawal CS, Kumar A, Rupakheti S. Transorbital Orbitocranial Penetrating Injury due to Bicycle Brake Handle in a Child. PNE 2007;43:498-500. 6.Ali M, Usman M, Alam I, Ishaq M. An unusual cause of traumatic brain injury in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: a case report. Journal of Postgraduate

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Jacob Henry Deacon

– 30. ‘Can You Move in Armour?’, online: < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-bnM5SuQkI > (accessed 21/10/2016). Carruthers, Mary, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). Castle, Egerton, Schools and Masters of Fencing from the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century (New York: Dover Publications, 2003). Clements, John, ‘Our New “Rosetta Stone”: Advancing Reconstruction of Forgotten European Fighting Arts’, online: < http

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Claus Frederik Sørensen

: Dover Publications, 2003). Daae, Ludvig, “Om Humanisten og Satirikeren Johann Lauremberg”, in Universitetsprogram i Anledning af Universitets Holbergsfest 3DIE December 1884 (Christiania (Copenhagen), J.Chr. Gundersens Bogtrykkeri, 1884). Dansk Biografisk Lexikon (ed. Bricka, C. F., Copenhagen: F. Hegel & Søn 1887-1905). Leoni, Tommaso, The Art of Dueling. Salvator Fabri’s rapier fencing treatise of 1606 (Highland Village: The Chivalry Bookshelf, 2005). Mackeprang, Mouritz, “Christian IVs Ridderakademi og Skolen”, in Soransk Samfund (ed

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Daniel Jaquet, Claus Frederik Sørensen and Fabrice Cognot

, Kristina, Tension and tradition : a study of late iron age spearheads around the Baltic Sea (unpubl. diss., University of Stockholm, 2003). Dupuis, Olivier, ‘A Fifteenth-Century Fencing Tournament in Strasbourg’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum, 1 (2013), 67–79. Fillery-Travis, Ruth, ‘Learning and teaching in experimental archaeology’, paper presented at the 6th Experimental Archaeology Conference, York, January 7, 2012. Gourdon, Olivier, ‘La pratique de la coupe : un apport à l’étude et à l’interprétation des arts martiaux historiques européen’, in

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Olivier Dupuis and Vincent Deluz

). Delisle Léopold Victor, Inventaire général et méthodique, vol. 2 (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1878). Delisle Léopold Victor, Le Cabinet des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque impériale, vol. 1 (Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1868). Derolez Albert, The Palaeography of Gothic Manuscript Books (Cambridge: University Press, 2003). Dupuis Olivier. ‘Organization and Regulation of Fencing in the Realm of France in the Renaissance’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum, 2 (2014), 233-54. Dupuis Olivier, ‘The French Fencing Traditions

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Zsolt Darvas and Guntram B. Wolff

, G. B. (2012). A Banking Union of 180 or 91%? Bruegel Blog, December 13, 2012. Emerging Markets (2013). European Commission Worried About Bank “Ring-Fencing”. Retrieved February 4, 2013 from http://www.emergingmarkets.org/Article/3150917/Economics-and-Policy/European-Commission-worried-about-bank-ring-fencing.html. European Council (2012). Conclusions. European Council 13/14 December. Available at http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsdata/docs/pressdata/en/ec/134353.pdf. Gerlach, S., Wolff, G. B. (2010). Banking

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Chassica Kirchhoff

Library, M.763) Jörg Wilhalm, Draft Fechtbuch , circa 1520 (Augsburg, Univeritätsbibliothek Augsburg, Cod. I.6.4.5) Jörg Wilhalm, Fechtbuch , circa 1522 (Augsburg, Univeritätsbibliothek Augsburg. Cod. I.6.2.3) V.2. Secondary Sources Anglo, Sydney, “Sword and Pen: Fencing Masters and Artists,” in The Noble Art of the Sword: Fashion and Fencing in Renaissance Europe 1520-1630, ed. By Tobias Capwell (London: Wallace Collection, 2012), 150-163 Anglo, Sydney, The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe (New Haven and London: Yale University Press